Obesity in transgenic female mice with constitutively elevated luteinizing hormone secretion
ABSTRACT Transgenic (TG) female mice, expressing a chimeric bovine luteinizing hormone (LH) beta-subunit/human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit COOH-terminal extension (bLHbeta-CTP) gene, produce high levels of circulating LH and serve as a model for functional ovarian hyperandrogenism and follicular cysts. We report here that obesity is a typical feature of these female mice. The mean body weight of the bLHbeta-CTP females was significantly higher than in controls at, and beyond 5 wk of age, and at 5 mo, it was 32% increased. At this age, the amount of white adipose tissue in the bLHbeta-CTP females was significantly increased, as reflected by the weight difference of the retroperitoneal fat pad. In addition, the expression of leptin mRNA in white adipose tissue of the TG females was elevated about twofold. Serum leptin and insulin levels, and food intake, were also increased significantly in the TG females. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity, as measured by GDP binding to BAT mitochondria, was reduced (P < 0.05). Ovariectomy at the age of 3 wk totally prevented the development of obesity. In summary, the present results show that intact female bLHbeta-CTP mice are obese, have increased food consumption, and reduced BAT thermogenic activity. The weight gain can be explained partly by elevated androgens but is probably also contributed to the increased adrenal steroidogenesis. Hence, the bLHbeta-CTP mice provide a useful model for studying obesity related to elevated LH secretion, with consequent alterations in ovarian and adrenal function.
SourceAvailable from: Kirsty A Walters[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent female endocrine disorder, affecting 5%-10% of women, causing infertility due to dysfunctional follicular maturation and ovulation, distinctive multicystic ovaries and hyperandrogenism, together with metabolic abnormalities including obesity, hyperinsulinism, an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of PCOS is unclear, and decisive clinical studies are limited by ethical and logistic constraints. Consequently treatment is palliative rather than curative and focuses on symptomatic approaches. Hence, a suitable animal model could provide a valuable means with which to study the pathogenesis of the characteristic reproductive and metabolic abnormalities and thereby identify novel and more effective treatments. So far there is no consensus on the best experimental animal model, which should ideally reproduce the key features associated with human PCOS. The prenatally androgenized rhesus monkey displays many characteristics of the human condition, including hyperandrogenism, anovulation, polycystic ovaries, increased adiposity, and insulin insensitivity. However, the high cost of nonhuman primate studies limits the practical utility of these large-animal models. Rodent models, on the other hand, are inexpensive, provide well-characterized and stable genetic backgrounds readily accessible for targeted genetic manipulation, and shorter reproductive life spans and generation times. Recent rodent models display both reproductive and metabolic disturbances associated with human PCOS. This review aimed to evaluate the rodent models reported to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the distinct rodent models used to investigate this complex endocrine disorder.Biology of Reproduction 02/2012; 86(5):149, 1-12. DOI:10.1095/biolreprod.111.097808 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of female infertility affecting 6-8% of women worldwide. PCOS is characterized by two of the following three criteria: clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism, oligo- or amenorrhea, and polycystic ovaries (PCO). In addition, women with PCOS are often obese and insulin resistant, and are at risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of PCOS remains unknown. Therefore, several animal models for PCOS have been generated to gain insight into the etiology and development of the PCOS-associated phenotypes. Androgens are considered the main culprit of PCOS, and therefore, androgenization of animals is the most frequently used approach to induce symptoms that resemble PCOS. Prenatal or prepubertal androgen treatment results in many characteristics of human PCOS, including anovulation, cyst-like follicles, elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, increased adiposity, and insulin insensitivity. However, PCOS has a heterogeneous presentation, and therefore it is difficult to generate a model that exactly reproduces the reproductive and metabolic phenotypes observed in women with PCOS. In this review, we discuss several mouse models for PCOS, and compare the reproductive and/or metabolic phenotypes observed in several androgen-induced models as well as in several genetic models.Reproductive biology 03/2014; 14(1):32-43. DOI:10.1016/j.repbio.2013.09.007 · 1.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To review rodent animal models of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with a focus on those associated with the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Review. Rodent models of PCOS. Description and comparison of animal models. Comparison of animal models to clinical phenotypes of PCOS. Animals used to study PCOS include rodents, mice, rhesus monkeys, and ewes. Major methods to induce PCOS in these models include subcutaneous injection or implantation of androgens, estrogens, antiprogesterone, letrozole, prenatal exposure to excess androgens, and exposure to constant light. In addition, transgenic mice models and spontaneous PCOS-like rodent models have also been developed. Rodents are the most economical and widely used animals to study PCOS and ovarian dysfunction. The model chosen to study the development of PCOS and other metabolic parameters remains dependent on the specific etiologic hypotheses being investigated. Rodent models have been shown to demonstrate changes in insulin metabolism, with or without induction of hyperandrogenemia, and limited studies have investigated cardiometabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Given the clinical heterogeneity of PCOS, the utilization of different animal models may be the best approach to further our understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with the early etiology of PCOS and cardiometabolic risk.Fertility and sterility 05/2012; 98(1):185-93. DOI:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.04.006 · 4.30 Impact Factor