Methylation of histone H3 by Set2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is linked to transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase II.
ABSTRACT Set2 methylates Lys36 of histone H3. We show here that yeast Set2 copurifies with RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that Set2 and histone H3 Lys36 methylation are associated with the coding regions of several genes that were tested and correlate with active transcription. Both depend, as well, on the Paf1 elongation factor complex. The C terminus of Set2, which contains a WW domain, is also required for effective Lys36 methylation. Deletion of CTK1, encoding an RNAPII CTD kinase, prevents Lys36 methylation and Set2 recruitment, suggesting that methylation may be triggered by contact of the WW domain or C terminus of Set2 with Ser2-phosphorylated CTD. A set2 deletion results in slight sensitivity to 6-azauracil and much less beta-galactosidase produced by a reporter plasmid, resulting from a defect in transcription. In synthetic genetic array (SGA) analysis, synthetic growth defects were obtained when a set2 deletion was combined with deletions of all five components of the Paf1 complex, the chromodomain elongation factor Chd1, the putative elongation factor Soh1, the Bre1 or Lge1 components of the histone H2B ubiquitination complex, or the histone H2A variant Htz1. SET2 also interacts genetically with components of the Set1 and Set3 complexes, suggesting that Set1, Set2, and Set3 similarly affect transcription by RNAPII.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Minkyu Kim, Aug 14, 2014
- SourceAvailable from: Shinya Takahata[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chromatin-modifying factors regulate both transcription and DNA replication. The yFACT chromatin-reorganizing complex is involved in both processes, and the sensitivity of some yFACT mutants to the replication inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) is one indication of a replication role. This HU sensitivity can be suppressed by disruptions of the SET2 or CHD1 genes, encoding a histone H3(K36) methyltransferase and a chromatin remodeling factor, respectively. The additive effect of set2 and chd1 mutations in suppressing the HU sensitivity of yFACT mutants suggests that these two factors function in separate pathways. The HU suppression is not an indirect effect of altered regulation of ribonucleotide reductase induced by HU. set2 and chd1 mutations also suppress the HU sensitivity of mutations in other genes involved in DNA replication, including CDC2, CTF4, ORC2, and MEC1. Additionally, a chd1 mutation can suppress the lethality normally caused by disruption of either MEC1 or RAD53 DNA damage checkpoint genes, as well as the lethality seen when a mec1 sml1 mutant is exposed to low levels of HU. The pob3 defect in S-phase progression is suppressed by set2 or chd1 mutations, suggesting that Set2 and Chd1 have specific roles in negatively regulating DNA replication.Genetics 03/2008; 178(2):649-59. DOI:10.1534/genetics.107.084202 · 4.87 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Post-translational modifications of histones are involved in transcript initiation and elongation. Methylation of lysine 36 of histone H3 (H3K36me) resides promoter distal at transcribed regions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is thought to prevent spurious initiation through recruitment of histone-deacetylase activity. Here, we report surprising complexity in distribution, regulation and readout of H3K36me in Drosophila involving two histone methyltransferases (HMTases). Dimethylation of H3K36 peaks adjacent to promoters and requires dMes-4, whereas trimethylation accumulates toward the 3' end of genes and relies on dHypb. Reduction of H3K36me3 is lethal in Drosophila larvae and leads to elevated levels of acetylation, specifically at lysine 16 of histone H4 (H4K16ac). In contrast, reduction of both di- and trimethylation decreases lysine 16 acetylation. Thus di- and trimethylation of H3K36 have opposite effects on H4K16 acetylation, which we propose enable dynamic changes in chromatin compaction during transcript elongation.The EMBO Journal 01/2008; 26(24):4974-84. DOI:10.1038/sj.emboj.7601926 · 10.75 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We describe the results of a genome-wide analysis of human cells that suggests that most protein-coding genes, including most genes thought to be transcriptionally inactive, experience transcription initiation. We found that nucleosomes with H3K4me3 and H3K9,14Ac modifications, together with RNA polymerase II, occupy the promoters of most protein-coding genes in human embryonic stem cells. Only a subset of these genes produce detectable full-length transcripts and are occupied by nucleosomes with H3K36me3 modifications, a hallmark of elongation. The other genes experience transcription initiation but show no evidence of elongation, suggesting that they are predominantly regulated at postinitiation steps. Genes encoding most developmental regulators fall into this group. Our results also identify a class of genes that are excluded from experiencing transcription initiation, at which mechanisms that prevent initiation must predominate. These observations extend to differentiated cells, suggesting that transcription initiation at most genes is a general phenomenon in human cells.Cell 08/2007; 130(1):77-88. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2007.05.042 · 33.12 Impact Factor