Repression of the human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene in growth-arrested human diploid cells: the role of nuclear factor-1.
ABSTRACT Adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2) catalyzes the exchange of ATP for ADP across the mitochondrial membrane, thus playing an important role in maintaining the cytosolic phosphorylation potential required for cell growth. Expression of ANT2 is activated by growth stimulation of quiescent cells and is down-regulated when cells become growth-arrested. In this study, we address the mechanism of growth arrest repression. Using a combination of transfection, in vivo dimethyl sulfate mapping, and in vitro DNase I mapping experiments, we identified two protein-binding elements (Go-1 and Go-2) that are responsible for growth arrest of ANT2 expression in human diploid fibroblasts. Proteins that bound the Go elements were purified and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry as members of the NF1 family of transcription factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that NF1 was bound to both Go-1 and Go-2 in quiescent human diploid cells in vivo, but not in the same cells stimulated to growth by serum. NF1 binding correlated with the disappearance of ANT2 transcripts in quiescent cells. Furthermore, overexpression of NF1-A, -C, and -X in NIH3T3 cells repressed expression of an ANT2-driven reporter gene construct. Two additional putative repressor elements in the ANT2 promoter, an Sp1 element juxtaposed to the transcription start site and a silencer centered at nucleotide -332, did not appear to contribute to growth arrest repression. Thus, enhanced binding of NF1 is a key step in the growth arrest repression of ANT2 transcription. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing a role for NF1 in growth arrest.
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ABSTRACT: Transcriptional regulation of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism is considered the major long-term regulatory mechanism controlling lipid homeostasis. By means of this mechanism, transcription factors, nutrients, hormones and epigenetics control not only fatty acid metabolism, but also many metabolic pathways and cellular functions at the molecular level. The regulation of the expression of many genes at the level of their transcription has already been analyzed. This review focuses on the transcriptional control of two genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidation: the citrate carrier (CIC) and the carnitine/ acylcarnitine/carrier (CAC), which are members of the mitochondrial carrier gene family, SLC25. The contribution of tissue-specific and less tissue-specific transcription factors in activating or repressing CIC and CAC gene expression is discussed. The interaction with drugs of some transcription factors, such as PPAR and FOXA1, and how this interaction can be an attractive therapeutic approach, has also been evaluated. Moreover, the mechanism by which the expression of the CIC and CAC genes is modulated by coordinated responses to hormonal and nutritional changes and to epigenetics is highlighted.Biology 01/2013; 2(1):284-303.
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ABSTRACT: Hybridization can lead to phenotypic differences arising from changes in gene expression patterns or new allele combinations. Variation in gene expression is thought to be controlled by differences in transcription regulation of parental alleles, either through cis- or trans-regulatory elements. A previous study among brook charr hybrids from different populations (Rupert, Laval, and domestic) showing distinct length at age during early life stages also revealed different patterns in transcription regulation inheritance of transcript abundance. In the present study, transcript abundance using RNA-sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes and allelic imbalance were assessed in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed transcriptomic and differences in length at age among domestic × Rupert hybrids and Laval × domestic hybrids. We found 198 differentially expressed genes between the two hybrid crosses, and allelic imbalance could be analyzed for 69 of them. Among these 69 genes, 36 genes exhibited cis-acting regulatory effects in both of the two crosses, thus confirming the prevalent role of cis-acting regulatory elements in the regulation of differentially expressed genes among intraspecific hybrids. In addition, we detected a significant association between SNP genotypes of three genes and length at age. Our study is thus one of the few that have highlighted some of the molecular mechanisms potentially involved in the differential phenotypic expression in intraspecific hybrids for nonmodel species.Heredity advance online publication, 16 January 2013; doi:10.1038/hdy.2012.117.Heredity 01/2013; · 4.11 Impact Factor