Repression of the human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene in growth-arrested human diploid cells: the role of nuclear factor-1.
ABSTRACT Adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2) catalyzes the exchange of ATP for ADP across the mitochondrial membrane, thus playing an important role in maintaining the cytosolic phosphorylation potential required for cell growth. Expression of ANT2 is activated by growth stimulation of quiescent cells and is down-regulated when cells become growth-arrested. In this study, we address the mechanism of growth arrest repression. Using a combination of transfection, in vivo dimethyl sulfate mapping, and in vitro DNase I mapping experiments, we identified two protein-binding elements (Go-1 and Go-2) that are responsible for growth arrest of ANT2 expression in human diploid fibroblasts. Proteins that bound the Go elements were purified and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry as members of the NF1 family of transcription factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that NF1 was bound to both Go-1 and Go-2 in quiescent human diploid cells in vivo, but not in the same cells stimulated to growth by serum. NF1 binding correlated with the disappearance of ANT2 transcripts in quiescent cells. Furthermore, overexpression of NF1-A, -C, and -X in NIH3T3 cells repressed expression of an ANT2-driven reporter gene construct. Two additional putative repressor elements in the ANT2 promoter, an Sp1 element juxtaposed to the transcription start site and a silencer centered at nucleotide -332, did not appear to contribute to growth arrest repression. Thus, enhanced binding of NF1 is a key step in the growth arrest repression of ANT2 transcription. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing a role for NF1 in growth arrest.
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ABSTRACT: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are resistant to chemo- and radio-therapy, and can survive to regenerate new tumors. This is an important reason why various anti- cancer therapies often fail to completely control tumors, although they kill and eliminate the bulk of cancer cells. In this study, we determined whether or not adenine nucleotide translocator-2 (ANT2) suppression could also be effective in inducing cell death of breast cancer stem-like cells. A sub-population (SP; CD44+/ CD24-) of breast cancer cells has been reported to have stem/progenitor cell properties. We utilized the adeno- ANT2 shRNA virus to inhibit ANT2 expression and then observed the treatment effect in a SP of breast cancer cell line. In this study, MCF7, MDA-MB-231 cells, and breast epithelial cells (MCF10A) mesenchymally-transdifferentiated through E-cadherin knockdown were used. ANT2 expression was high in both stem-like cells and non-stem-like cells of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, and was induced and up-regulated by mesenchymal transdifferentiation in MCF10A cells (MCF10A(EMT)). Knockdown of ANT2 by adeno-shRNA virus efficiently induced apoptotic cell death in the stem-like cells of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, and MCF10A(EMT). Stem-like cells of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, and MCF10A(EMT) cells exhibited increased drug (doxorubicin) resistance, and expressed a multi-drug resistant related molecule, ABCG2, at a high level. Adeno-ANT2 shRNA virus markedly sensitized the stem-like cells of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, and the MCF10A(EMT) cells to doxorubicin, which was accompanied by down-regulation of ABCG2. Our results suggest that ANT2 suppression by adeno-shRNA virus is an effective strategy to induce cell death and increase the chemosensitivity of stem-like cells in breast cancer.Experimental and Molecular Medicine 12/2011; 44(4):251-9. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we developed a combination therapy (pcDNA3/hMUC1+mANT2 shRNA) to enhance the efficiency of MUC1 DNA vaccination by combining it with mANT2 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) treatment in immunocompetent mice. mANT2 shRNA treatment alone increased the apoptosis of BMF cells (B16F1 murine melanoma cell line coexpressing an MUC1 and Fluc gene) and rendered BMF tumor cells more susceptible to lysis by MUC1-associated CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, combined therapy enhanced MUC1 associated T-cell immune response and antitumor effects, and resulted in a higher cure rate than either treatment alone (pcDNA3/hMUC1 or mANT2 shRNA therapy alone). Human MUC1 (hMUC1)-loaded CD11c(+) cells in the draining lymph nodes of BMF-bearing mice treated with the combined treatment were found to be most effective at generating hMUC1-associated CD8(+)IFNγ(+) T cells. Furthermore, the in vitro killing activities of hMUC1-associated cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) in the combined therapy were greater than in the respective monotherapies. Cured animals treated with the combined treatment rejected a rechallenge by BMF cells, but not a rechallenge by B16F1-Fluc cells at 14 days after treatment, and showed MUC1 antigen-associated immune responses. These results suggest that combined therapy enhances antitumor activity, and that it offers an effective antitumor strategy for treating melanoma.Molecular Therapy 11/2010; 19(5):979-89. · 7.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Schwartz Report tracks emerging trends that will affect the world, particularly the United States. For EXPLORE, it focuses on matters of health in the broadest sense of that term, including medical issues, changes in the biosphere, technology, and policy considerations, all of which will shape our culture and our lives.EXPLORE The Journal of Science and Healing 11/2011; 7(6):348-53. · 0.92 Impact Factor