Childhood diarrhea and observed hygiene behavior in Salvador, Brazil.
ABSTRACT Brief biweekly home visits, made as part of a cohort study of diarrhea in young children under age 5 years that was carried out in Salvador, Brazil, in 1998-1999, were used as a low-cost way to collect structured observation data on domestic hygiene behavior. Field-workers were trained to check a list of 23 forms of hygienic or unhygienic behavior by the child or the child's caretaker, if any behaviors were seen during the visit. Children were grouped according to whether mainly unhygienic behavior or mainly hygienic behavior had been recorded. This permitted study of the determinants of hygiene behavior and of its role in the transmission or prevention of diarrheal disease. Observations were recorded on roughly one visit in 20. Households with adequate excreta disposal were significantly more likely to be in the "mainly hygienic" group. The prevalence of diarrhea among children for whom mainly unhygienic behavior was recorded was 2.2 times that among children in the "mainly hygienic" group. The relative risk for prevalence was 2.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.7, 2.8). The relative risk fell to 1.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.5, 2.5) after data were controlled for confounding, but the difference was still highly significant.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Cristina Larrea Killinger, Apr 06, 2014
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Poor school sanitation and hygiene is a major problem in developing countries and remains high risk behaviour among primary school going children. Many outbreaks of gastrointestinal infections have been associated with primary schools. This research paper was designed to assess the factors influencing hygiene behaviour among school children.BMC Public Health 09/2014; 14(1):1000. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1000 · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hands may be the most important means by which enteric pathogens are transmitted. Skin hygiene particularly of the hands, has been accepted as a primary mechanism to control the spread of infectious agents. Therefore the present study was undertaken to evaluate the number and type of enteric bacterial pathogens associated with hands. A total of 160 hands swab samples of 80 students of KG, PS, SS, UG, and PG were analyzed. Pathogens were isolated from hands includes Escherichia coli (22%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12%), Staphylococcus aureus (15%), Proteus mirabilis (11%), Citrobacter freundii (10%), Enterobacter aerogenes (8%), Streptococcus sp. (7%), Klebsiella sp. (6%), Micrococcus sp. (5%) and Salmonella typhi (4%). The prevalence of the bacterial pathogens was high in students of K.G. and primary than those in secondary schools and colleges. The data indicated that the hands of the female were more contaminated than male and the left hand was more contaminated than the right hand. Thus, the potential risk factors for transmission of enteric pathogens through hands should be investigated in order to improve the general health of the students.African Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/2010; 3(1). DOI:10.4314/ajid.v3i1.55076
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the impact of the use of water-tanks on the occurrence of episodes of diarrhea, comparing the number and duration of episodes among the residents of households with and without water-tanks in the same geographical area. METHODS: a longitudinal prospective study, nested in a cross-section study comparing two groups (households with and without water-tanks), was carried out in 21 municipalities in the Central Agreste region of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco, in 2007. Data was gathered over 60 days and included 1,765 individuals. Descriptive analysis was carried out using mixed hierarchical models, Mann-Whitney and Kaplan-Meyer with the level of significance set at 5%. RESULTS: among the 949 individuals with water-tanks, there was a reduction in the risk of the occurrence of episodes of diarrhea of 73% compared with the 816 individuals without water-tanks (RR=0.27; p<0.001). The mean number of episodes registered among residents of households without water-tanks was 0.48 (SC=1.17), compared with 0.08 (SC=0.32) among households with water-tanks (z=-10.26; p<0.001). The mean during of episodes was 1.5 times greater in households without water-tanks (χ2=8.99; p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: the findings of this study point to the importance of access to drinking water for the reduction of disease. The occurrence of diarrhea and its concomitant severity indicators-number of episodes and duration-were consistently higher among residents of households without water-tanks.Revista Brasileira de Saúde Materno Infantil 09/2011; 11(3):283-292. DOI:10.1590/S1519-38292011000300009