Paucity of Sjogren-like syndrome in a cohort of HIV-1-positive patients in the HAART era. Part II.

Academic Department of Pathophysiology, AIDS Unit, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 4.21). 11/2003; 42(10):1164-7. DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/keg316
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study was performed in order to investigate the prevalence of Sjögren-like syndrome (SLS) in the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) era in a cohort of HIV-1-positive Greek patients.
One hundred and thirty-one unselected patients were screened by the validated European Union (EU) criteria for Sjögren's syndrome. Of the 31 who gave a positive EU-validated questionnaire, 17 consented to undergo minor salivary gland biopsy and other tests.
Only two patients had a positive salivary gland biopsy and both belonged to the non-compliant HAART group, whereas none of the compliant HAART patients had histological findings.
It is concluded that SLS, the prevalence of which in the pre-HAART era was 7.8%, has disappeared, possibly as a result of the protective action of HAART.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autoimmune rheumatic diseases, such as RA and SLE, are caused by genetic, hormonal and environmental factors. Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs) may be triggers of autoimmune rheumatic disease. HERVs are fossil viruses that began to be integrated into the human genome some 30-40 million years ago and now make up 8% of the genome. Evidence suggests HERVs may cause RA and SLE, among other rheumatic diseases. The key mechanisms by which HERVS are postulated to cause disease include molecular mimicry and immune dysregulation. Identification of HERVs in RA and SLE could lead to novel treatments for these chronic conditions. This review summarises the evidence for HERVs as contributors to autoimmune rheumatic disease and the clinical implications and mechanisms of pathogenesis are discussed.
    The Open Rheumatology Journal 01/2013; 7:13-21.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review focuses on some of the recent advances in the understanding of HIV immunopathogenesis and the diagnosis and treatment of several autoimmune conditions associated with HIV in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy. Chronic immune activation with progressive immune exhaustion are central features of HIV pathogenesis. The role of self-reactive T cells in the generation and maintenance of this process has recently been described. The understanding of the impact of immune dysregulation on the generation of autoimmune phenomena in HIV infection remains incomplete. The diagnosis of autoimmune diseases in the context of HIV is often difficult due to similarities in clinical presentations and laboratory markers. The antiretroviral therapy-associated immune reconstitution syndrome can present as autoimmune disease. The cause, frequency and prognosis of autoimmune conditions associated with HIV infection remain somewhat uncertain. Their management is often empirical with the use of novel immunosuppressive medication.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 03/2009; 22(1):49-56. · 4.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Circumstantial evidence suggests that retroviruses play a role in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome. Such evidence, derived from studies of patients with Sjögren's syndrome, includes the following: the presence of serum antibodies cross-reactive with retroviral Gag proteins; the occurrence of reverse transcriptase activity in salivary glands; the detection of retroviral antigens, retrovirus-like particles, or novel retroviral sequences in salivary glands; the occurrence of Sjögren's syndrome-like illnesses in patients having confirmed systematic infections with retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and human T lymphotropic virus type 1; and the beneficial effect of anti-retroviral treatment on the occurrence of HIV-1-associated sicca syndrome. Additional evidence is provided by animal models.
    Arthritis research & therapy 04/2011; 13(2):212. · 4.27 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Sep 22, 2014