Habituation of Rostral Anterior Cingulate Cortex to Repeated Emotionally Salient Pictures
Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States Neuropsychopharmacology
(Impact Factor: 7.05).
08/2003; 28(7):1344-50. DOI: 10.1038/sj.npp.1300186
Habituation of the neural response to repeated stimuli has been well demonstrated for subcortical limbic regions responding to emotionally salient stimuli. Although the rostral or affective division of the anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is also engaged during emotional processing, little is known about the temporal dynamics of this region in sustained evaluation of emotional salience. Using a test/retest design, the present study assessed habituation in the human brain with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Eight healthy subjects were exposed to two repeated runs of aversive, neutral, and blank images. Activation of the rACC to negatively valenced pictures occurred only in the first session, and this activation was significantly greater in the first relative to the second session. Additionally, medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampal, and amygdalar activations were noted during the first, but not second, presentation of aversive pictures. These findings highlight the phasic activity of the rACC in emotional processing consistent with habituation.
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Available from: Carmen Morawetz
- "The anatomical ROIs were created using the WFU Pick Atlas toolbox (version 3.0) (Maldjian et al. 2003) (left amygdala: x = −24, y = −2, z = −18; right amygdala: x = 27, y = −1, z = −19). As it has previously been demonstrated that amygdala activity decreases upon repeated presentation of negative stimuli (Breiter et al. 1996; Fischer et al. 2000, 2003; Wright et al. 2001; Phan et al. 2003; Ishai et al. 2004; Britton et al. 2008), we tested for habituation effects . To do this, we divided the trials within each run into early (1–3) and late (4–7) trials and performed another ROI analysis within the amygdala. "
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ABSTRACT: Reappraisal, the cognitive reevaluation of a potentially emotionally arousing event, has been proposed to be based upon top-down
appraisal systems within the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It still remains unclear, however, how different prefrontal regions
interact to control and regulate emotional responses. We used fMRI and dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to characterize the functional
interrelationships among dorsal and ventral PFC regions involved in reappraisal. Specifically, we examined the effective connectivity
between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), and other reappraisal-related regions (supplementary motor
area, supramarginal gyrus) during the up- and downregulation of emotions in response to highly arousing extreme sports film
clips. We found DLPFC to be the central node of the prefrontal emotion regulation network, strongly interconnected with the
IFG. The DCM analysis further revealed excitatory changes of connection strength from the DLPFC to the IFG and strong inhibitory
changes of connection strength between the IFG and DLPFC during reappraisal. These bidirectional changes in connectivity strength
indicate a feedback mechanism by which the IFG may select one out of several possible goal-appropriate reappraisals held active
in working memory (represented in the DLPFC) and inhibits the DLPFC once the selection process is completed.
Cerebral Cortex 01/2015; DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhv005 · 8.67 Impact Factor
Available from: Antonia S New
- " subcortical loci involved in memory encoding and attentional orient - ing toward negative stimuli such as the amygdala ( Breiter et al . , 1996 ; Fischer et al . , 2000 , 2003 ; Wright et al . , 2001 ; Phan et al . , 2003 ; Ishai et al . , 2004 ; Britton et al . , 2008 ) and hippocampus ( Fischer et al . , 2000 , 2003 ; Feinstein et al . , 2002 ; Phan et al . , 2003 ) . Further , consistent with Wright et al . ( 2001 ) , we observed habituation in right , but not left , amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus ."
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ABSTRACT: Behavioral habituation during repeated exposure to aversive stimuli is an adaptive process. However, the way in which changes in self-reported emotional experience are related to the neural mechanisms supporting habituation remains unclear. We probed these mechanisms by repeatedly presenting negative images to healthy adult participants and recording behavioral and neural responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We were particularly interested in investigating patterns of activity in insula, given its significant role in affective integration, and in amygdala, given its association with appraisal of aversive stimuli and its frequent coactivation with insula. We found significant habituation behaviorally along with decreases in amygdala, occipital cortex, and ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity with repeated presentation, whereas bilateral posterior insula, dorsolateral PFC, and precuneus showed increased activation. Posterior insula activation during image presentation was correlated with greater negative affect ratings for novel presentations of negative images. Further, repeated negative image presentation was associated with increased functional connectivity between left posterior insula and amygdala, and increasing insula-amygdala functional connectivity was correlated with increasing behavioral habituation. These results suggest that habituation is subserved in part by insula-amygdala connectivity and involves a change in the activity of bottom-up affective networks.
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 10/2013; 9(11). DOI:10.1093/scan/nst160 · 7.37 Impact Factor
Available from: Jeffrey M Spielberg
- "Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and amygdala were also examined for association with both anxiety types. Evidence suggests that ACC is involved in diverting attentional resources toward negatively valenced stimuli (Devinsky et al. 1995), and activation in this region habituates to repeated presentations of emotional stimuli (Phan et al. 2003). Amygdala has been strongly implicated in responding to negatively valenced stimuli (Phelps 2009) and habituates to repeated presentations of such stimuli (Breiter et al. 1996). "
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ABSTRACT: Habituation of the fear response, critical for the treatment of anxiety, is inconsistently observed during exposure to threatening stimuli. One potential explanation for this inconsistency is differential attentional engagement with negatively valenced stimuli as a function of anxiety type.
The present study tested this hypothesis by examining patterns of neural habituation associated with anxious arousal, characterized by panic symptoms and immediate engagement with negatively valenced stimuli, versus anxious apprehension, characterized by engagement in worry to distract from negatively valenced stimuli.
As predicted, the two anxiety types evidenced distinct patterns of attentional engagement. Anxious arousal was associated with immediate activation in attention-related brain regions that habituated over time, whereas anxious apprehension was associated with delayed activation in attention-related brain regions that occurred only after habituation in a worry-related brain region.
Results further elucidate mechanisms involved in attention to negatively valenced stimuli and indicate that anxiety is a heterogeneous construct with regard to attention to such stimuli.
Brain and Behavior 09/2013; 3(5):532-51. DOI:10.1002/brb3.157 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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