Effect of the desert plant Retama raetam on glycaemia in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
ABSTRACT The effect of the aqueous extract of Retama raetam (RR) on blood glucose levels was investigated in fasting normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after single and repeated oral administration. The aqueous extract of RR at a dose of 20mg/kg significantly reduced the blood glucose in normal rats 6h after a single oral administration (P<0.005) and two weeks after repeated oral administration (P<0.05). This hypoglycaemic effect is more pronounced in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats (P<0.001). The aqueous extract of RR had no effect on basal plasma insulin levels indicating that the underlying mechanism of RR activity is extra-pancreatic. These findings suggest that the aqueous extract of RR possess significant hypoglycaemic effect in both normal and STZ diabetic rats.
- SourceAvailable from: Khalid Ghazanfar
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- "Today, medicinal plants are increasingly being used in most parts of the world as: hypolipidemic (Ogbonnia et al., 2008; Yadav et al., 2008); contraceptive, abortifacients, or cytotoxic (Ritchie, 2001); antihypertensive (Ojewole, 2005; Ofem et al., 2007; Ojewole & Adewole, 2007; Nworgu et al., 2008); treatment for skin diseases (Ajose, 2007), wound healers (Biswas & Mukherjee, 2003); and hypoglycemic (Eddouks et al., 2003; Maghrani et al 2003; Musabayane et al., 2006; Ogbonnia et al., 2008; Patel et al., 2008; Yadav et al., 2008; Ajao et al., 2009; Farswan et al., 2009; Lee et al., 2009). Hypoglycemic agents have been used in the management of diabetes mellitus. "
ABSTRACT: Incidence of type II diabetes is rapidly increasing worldwide. In order to identify complementary or alternative approaches to existing medications, we studied anti-diabetic properties of Berberis lycium-a natural health product recommended for diabetes treatment in kashmir. The hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of this plant at two dose levels of 250 and 500mg/kg b.wt in normal as well as in rats with Alloxan monohydrate induced diabetes was studied. The oral administration of aqueous and methanolic extract causes maximum fall of blood glucose level to 58.41% and 50.80% in diabetic rats respectively. The acute oral toxicity studies of the extracts revealed no toxic effects of the extracts. The extracts also lowered the levels of serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum LDL, serum VLDL, serum SGOT, serum SGPT, and Serum ALP in diabetic rats. The histological studies depict that the extracts have a protective effect on the ß-cells of pancreas in diabetic rats in a dose dependent manner.
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- "In Saudi folk medicine, fruits are particularly used in remedies of diabetes (Gushash, 2006). Experimental studies indicated that RR possesses, lipid and body weight-lowering (Maghrani et al., 2004), diuretic (Maghrani et al., 2005a), antihypertensive (Eddouks et al., 2007), antioxidant (Conforti et al., 2004; Koriem et al., 2009), antibacterial (Hayet et al., 2007) and hypoglycemic (Maghrani et al., 2003, 2005b) activities. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the mechanisms underlying the biological activity of RR. "
ABSTRACT: Retama raetam (RR) fruits are used in Saudi traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Current study aimed at evaluating the potential and mechanisms of the antidiabetic activity of the RR methanolic extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral LD(50) of the extract was found to be 1995 mg/kg. The extract was administered once orally to STZ-diabetic rats at three dose levels; 100, 250 or 500 mg/kg/day for 4 consecutive weeks. RR extract at 250 or 500 mg/kg significantly lowered blood glucose levels at the 3rd and 1st week of treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, oral glucose tolerance test indicated that the same two doses significantly lowered glucose levels at 30 and 60 min after glucose challenge. Administration of RR extract at 500 mg/kg/day for 4 consecutive weeks significantly increased serum insulin level. In vitro studies indicated that the extract significantly inhibits glucose absorption by rat isolated intestine. The extract neither altered glucose uptake by rat isolated psoas muscle nor the activity of hepatic microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase. In conclusion, the methanolic extract of RR improves STZ-induced diabetes in rats. This can be attributed, at least partly, to stimulating pancreatic insulin release and reducing intestinal glucose absorption.Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 08/2010; 48(8-9):2448-53. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2010.06.010 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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- "Hypoglycaemic effects of some plants have been reported due to polyphenols (Maghrani et al., 2003; Sachdewa and Khemani, 2003). Since cocoa beans is well known to be rich in polyphenols, it is possible that the hypoglycaemic effect could be related to these components. "
ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to investigate the hypoglycaemic properties of Malaysian cocoa (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols extract in-vivo and insulin sensitivity in-vitro. Cocoa extract (CE) (containing 190 -286 mg total polyphenol per gram extract) was prepared from fermented and roasted (140°C, 20 min) beans by extracting with 80% ethanol in the ratio of 1 to 10. For the in-vivo study, the CE was administered in three dosages (1%, 2%, and 3%) to groups of normal and diabetic rats for a period of 4 weeks by force-feeding. Results showed that dosages of 1% and 3% CE significantly reduced (p < 0.05) plasma glucose levels in the diabetic rats. An in-vitro study (BRIN-BD11 cell lines) was used to evaluate the effect of CE on insulin sensitivity. The results demonstrated that CE at a concentration of 0.1 mg/ml significantly increased (p < 0.05) insulin level compared to the control. The results of this study showed that Malaysian cocoa polyphenol extract have the potential of being an insulin-mimetic agent. Further studies are on-going to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of polyphenols present in CE that contribute to the reduction of plasma glucose levels and insulin mimicking activity.