Role of the cytoskeleton in nuclear import.
ABSTRACT The role of the cytoskeleton in regulating the intracellular localization of cellular organelles, viruses, and individual proteins has been the subject of much investigation in recent years. While regulated transport through the nuclear pore remains the primary determinant of nuclear localization, it has become clear that the nuclear localization of viruses and some cellular proteins is mediated by the ability of the cytoskeleton, usually microtubules, to direct their perinuclear accumulation in close proximity to the nuclear pore complex. We also discuss how the size of virions and the viscous nature of the cytoplasm would make it very unlikely or even impossible for viruses to achieve this localization by diffusion alone in the absence of active transport mechanisms. This review focuses on the known methods employed by different viruses and proteins to effect their perinuclear accumulation.
Article: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus modulates microtubule dynamics via RhoA-GTP-diaphanous 2 signaling and utilizes the dynein motors to deliver its DNA to the nucleus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8; also called Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus), which is implicated in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and lymphoproliferative disorders, infects a variety of target cells both in vivo and in vitro. HHV-8 binds to several in vitro target cells via cell surface heparan sulfate and utilizes the alpha3beta1 integrin as one of its entry receptors. Interactions with cell surface molecules induce the activation of host cell signaling cascades and cytoskeletal changes (P. P. Naranatt, S. M. Akula, C. A. Zien, H. H. Krishnan, and B. Chandran, J. Virol. 77:1524-1539, 2003). However, the mechanism by which the HHV-8-induced signaling pathway facilitates the complex events associated with the internalization and nuclear trafficking of internalized viral DNA is as yet undefined. Here we examined the role of HHV-8-induced cytoskeletal dynamics in the infectious process and their interlinkage with signaling pathways. The depolymerization of microtubules did not affect HHV-8 binding and internalization, but it inhibited the nuclear delivery of viral DNA and infection. In contrast, the depolymerization of actin microfilaments did not have any effect on virus binding, entry, nuclear delivery, or infection. Early during infection, HHV-8 induced the acetylation of microtubules and the activation of the RhoA and Rac1 GTPases. The inactivation of Rho GTPases by Clostridium difficile toxin B significantly reduced microtubular acetylation and the delivery of viral DNA to the nucleus. In contrast, the activation of Rho GTPases by Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor significantly augmented the nuclear delivery of viral DNA. Among the Rho GTPase-induced downstream effector molecules known to stabilize the microtubules, the activation of RhoA-GTP-dependent diaphanous 2 was observed, with no significant activation in the Rac- and Cdc42-dependent PAK1/2 and stathmin molecules. The nuclear delivery of viral DNA increased in cells expressing a constitutively active RhoA mutant and decreased in cells expressing a dominant-negative mutant of RhoA. HHV-8 capsids colocalized with the microtubules, as observed by confocal microscopic examination, and the colocalization was abolished by the destabilization of microtubules with nocodazole and by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor affecting the Rho GTPases. These results suggest that HHV-8 induces Rho GTPases, and in doing so, modulates microtubules and promotes the trafficking of viral capsids and the establishment of infection. This is the first demonstration of virus-induced host cell signaling pathways in the modulation of microtubule dynamics and in the trafficking of viral DNA to the infected cell nucleus. These results further support our hypothesis that HHV-8 manipulates the host cell signaling pathway to create an appropriate intracellular environment that is conducive to the establishment of a successful infection.Journal of Virology 02/2005; 79(2):1191-206. · 5.40 Impact Factor
Article: A spatial model of cellular molecular trafficking including active transport along microtubules.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We consider models of Ran-driven nuclear transport of molecules such as proteins in living cells. The mathematical model presented is the first to take into account for the active transport of molecules along the cytoplasmic microtubules. All parameters entering the models are thoroughly discussed. The model is tested by numerical simulations based on discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods. The numerical experiments are compared to the behavior observed experimentally.Journal of Theoretical Biology 12/2010; 267(4):614-25. · 2.21 Impact Factor