Tourette's Syndrome in Children.
ABSTRACT This paper will provide a review of the Tourette's syndrome (TS) in children, focusing on treatment options, including a drug-by-drug evaluation of available pharmacologic agents and other treatments. Despite increasing knowledge of the neurophysiologic basis of the tics of TS, ideal and universally effective treatments do not yet exist. Affected children may present a wide variety of phenotypes, which are best managed in a case-by-case manner, with the well-informed patient and family weighing the risks and benefits of interventions together with a knowledgeable and committed clinician. The clinician treating TS will encounter a wide range of tic severity, comorbidity, adherence to treatment, and treatment response. The clinician's most important task is to identify the main sources of distress and impairment, and set priorities for their management. Common treatment may involve education and reassurance, psychosocial and school interventions, and choices from an array of pharmacologic agents. Decisions regarding treatment ought to be made collaboratively with the clinician and family, after a careful discussion of symptom extent and severity, psychosocial impact, desired outcome, and realistic treatment expectations and side effects. Given the waxing and waning course of tics in TS, clinicians often monitor each patient for several weeks before starting a somatic treatment, based on a judgement that even when tics are at their best, they are severe enough to warrant pharmacotherapy. With children for whom the decision has been taken to target tics with medication, the authors recommend beginning with guanfacine or clonidine, especially when there are any hyperactivity symptoms. The next choice would be a low-dose neuroleptic. Patience and close ongoing monitoring of efficacy and side effects is necessary, whenever a clinical trial of medications is undertaken, to achieve an acceptable balance between tic control and side effects. Treatments should be targeted at specific symptoms and comorbidities, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinicians tend to treat comorbid conditions first because they may be the greatest sources of difficulty. On occasion, the successful treatment of a comorbid condition will lead to an amelioration of tics.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: This is a practical review of Tourette syndrome, including phenomenology, natural history, and state-of-the-art assessment and treatment. Method: Computerized literature searches were conducted under the keywords Tourette syndrome,tics, and children-adolescents. Results: Studies have documented the natural history of Tourette syndrome and its frequent co-occurrence with attention problems, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and a range of other mood and anxiety disorders, which are often of primary concern to patients and their families. Proper diagnosis and education are often very helpful for patients, parents, siblings, teachers, and peers. When necessary, available anti-tic treatments have proven efficacious. First-line options include the alpha adrenergic agents and the atypical neuroleptics, as well as behavioral interventions such as habit reversal. Conclusions: The study of tics and Tourette symdrome has led to the development of several pathophysiological models and helped in the development of management options. However, fully explanatory models are still needed that would allow for accurate prognostication in the course of illness and the development of improved treatments.Psychiatry 07/2005; 2(7):26-36.
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ABSTRACT: This work investigated whether Tourette syndrome patients exhibit alterations in neural oscillations during spontaneous expression and suppression of tics. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded from 9 medication-naïve children with Tourette syndrome and 10 age-matched healthy subjects in resting conditions and during tic suppression. Their cortical oscillations were examined using the power spectral method and partial directed coherence. The authors found increased oscillations of broad frequency bands in the frontomotor regions of patients during tic expression, suggesting the involvement of aberrant cortical oscillations in Tourette syndrome. More significantly, prominent increases in theta oscillation in the prefrontal area and directed frontomotor interactions in the theta and beta bands were observed during tic suppression. Furthermore, the directed EEG interaction from the frontal to motor regions was positively correlated with the severity of tic symptoms. These findings suggest that the frontal to motor interaction of cortical oscillations plays a significant role in tic suppression.Journal of child neurology 08/2012; · 1.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Increased attention has been paid to tic disorders clinically, yet relatively few studies have probed potential factors that account for the occurrence of tic disorders in the general population. In this study, we used data derived from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database to examine an array of factors related to the diagnosis of tic disorders and to further probe gender heterogeneity in clinical manifestation. Poisson regression analyses were applied to model the effects of birth cohort, period, and age, separately, on tic disorders. A total of 880 newly diagnosed tic disorders were identified from 2002 to 2009 among 100,516 youngsters in the study dataset who were born between 1997 and 2005. The results showed that a significant increase in the adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) was observed when age increased, with the highest adjusted IRR found at age 8-9 years. Compared to the time period from 2002 to 2005, an elevated IRR was found in the time period from 2006 to 2009 (adjusted IRR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.05-1.80). Boys tended to be more likely to receive their initial diagnosis from psychiatrists and have higher comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as compared with their girl counterparts. In conclusion, the findings indicate that the effects of age and period, respectively, influence the occurrence of newly diagnosed tic disorders. Gender difference and higher frequent comorbid ADHD in boys than in girls were observed in this study.Journal of Psychiatric Research 05/2013; · 4.09 Impact Factor