Elevated serum procalcitonin values correlate with renal scarring in children with urinary tract infection.

Serveis de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, C/Canyet s/n, 08916 Badalona, Spain.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (Impact Factor: 3.57). 06/2003; 22(5):438-42. DOI: 10.1097/01.inf.0000066161.48499.0e
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Urinary tract infection (UTI) in young children carries the risk of parenchymal damage and sequelae. The location of the infection within the urinary tract influences decisions regarding both therapeutics and follow-up. Because clinical features and laboratory markers of infection at an early age are not specific, it is difficult to make a distinction between lower UTI and acute pyelonephritis. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been studied as a marker of severe bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to test the usefulness of PCT concentration in serum to distinguish between uncomplicated UTI and severe acute pyelonephritis with renal scars.
PCT was measured by immunoluminometric assay in serum samples from children with microbiologically documented infection. Severe renal involvement was assessed by 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid gammagraphy done 5 to 6 months after the episode to check for the presence of parenchymal scars. C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocyte count were also measured.
PCT at presentation showed a significant correlation (P < 0.001) with the presence of renal scars in children with UTI. Using a cutoff of 1 ng/ml for PCT and 20 mg/l for CRP, sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between urinary tract infection with and without renal damage were 92.3 and 61.9%, respectively, for PCT and 92.3 and 34.4% for CRP. Positive and negative predictive values were 32 and 97.5%, respectively, for PCT and 23 and 95%, respectively, for CRP.
A low PCT value at admission indicates a low risk of long term renal scarring. Increased PCT values at admission correlate with the presence of scars. PCT values have proved to be more specific than CRP and leukocyte count for identifying patients who might develop renal damage.

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    ABSTRACT: AIM: Whether or not voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) should be performed after a first episode of urinary tract infection (UTI) remains a matter of debate. The role of VCUG is primarily to diagnose high-grade vesicoureteral reflux (≥grade III) (VUR) and hence prevent the development of renal scars and poor long-term outcome. We designed a protocol designed to reduce the indications for performing unnecessary VCUGs after a first episode of febrile UTI. In order to evaluate the efficacy of our protocol, we designed a retrospective study to verify whether high-grade VUR was subsequently being underdiagnosed. METHODS: This study compared the number of cases of VUR diagnosed over 2 1-year periods in children aged 1month to 18years. Data were collected from records held in the pediatric emergency department of the University Hospital of Reims. All cases included had presented to the department with a first episode of febrile UTI. During the first 1-year collection period, all patients underwent a VCUG. During the second collection period, the protocol was in place and VCUG was only performed in children with a serum procalcitonin level greater than 1ng/L and/or an abnormal renal ultrasound scan. RESULTS: During the first year, 100 patients underwent routine VCUG and 7 cases of high-grade VUR were diagnosed. During the following year, VCUG was limited according to the new protocol: 102 patients were enrolled, 52 VCUGs were performed and 8 cases of high-grade VUR were diagnosed. Cases of low-grade VUR (I and II) were less frequently detected, without significant consequences for the patients. CONCLUSION: The protocol led to a 40% decrease in the number of VCUGs performed. No cases of high-grade VUR were missed; however, the number of VCUGs performed with a normal outcome remained significant.
    Archives de Pédiatrie 04/2013; · 0.36 Impact Factor
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