Parainfluenza type 3 virus (PIV-3) infections cause lower respiratory tract illness in children throughout the world. A licensed PIV-3 vaccine is not yet available.
A live attenuated cold-adapted (ca) and temperature-sensitive (ts) PIV-3 vaccine, designated cp-45, was evaluated sequentially in open label studies in 20 adults and in placebo-controlled, double blind studies in 24 PIV-3-seropositive children, 52 PIV-3-seronegative infants and children and 49 infants 1 to 2 months old. A single dose of this intranasal vaccine was evaluated in adults [106 plaque-forming units (pfu)] and seropositive children, and 104 and 105 pfu were evaluated in seronegative children. In the infant study, two 104 pfu doses of vaccine were administered at 1- or 3-month intervals. Safety, infectivity, immunogenicity and phenotypic stability of the vaccine were evaluated in all cohorts.
The cp-45 vaccine was well-tolerated in all age groups and infected 94% of vaccinated seronegative children and 94% of vaccinated infants. Although immunization with the first dose of cp-45 diminished the replication of a second dose in all infants, those immunized after 3 months shed vaccine virus more frequently than those immunized after 1 month (62% vs. 24%, respectively). Antibody responses to PIV-3 were readily detected in seronegative children with a variety of assays; however, the IgA response to the viral hemagglutinin-neuraminidase was the best measure of immunogenicity in young infants. Of 109 vaccine virus specimens recovered from nasal washes, 98 were ts and 11 were temperature-sensitive intermediate (tsi) viruses, with pinpoint plaques visible at 40 degrees C. tsi viruses appeared transiently at the time of peak viral replication, represented a very small proportion of the total virus shed and were not associated with changes in clinical status. ca revertants were not detected.
The cp-45 vaccine is appropriately attenuated and immunogenic in infants as young as 1 month of age. Further development of this vaccine is warranted.
"Our newly developed OML-HN vaccine has several advantages as compared with previously developed vaccine methods including live attenuated vaccines. Although there is no practical prophylactic vaccine against HPIV3 infection, several previous studies have indicated that attenuated vaccines created by reducing the virulence of HPIV3 can indeed effectively induce the mucosal immunity when treated by intranasal administration (Karron et al., 2003). However, a major problem of these vaccines is their potential to cause a live infection in infants and immunocompromised hosts. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are the etiologic agents of lower respiratory infections and pneumonia in infants, young children and immunocompromised hosts. The overarching goal for the prevention of HPIV infection is the development of an effective vaccine against HPIVs. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of oligomannose-coated liposomes (OMLs) as an antigen-delivery system in combination with a synthetic double-stranded RNA analog for the induction of mucosal and systematic immunity against HPIV3. Full-length hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein was synthesized using the wheat germ cell-free protein production system and then encapsulated into OML to serve as the antigen. Intranasal administration of the HN-filling OML (OML-HN) with the synthetic double-stranded RNA adjuvant, polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] generated significant viral-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses as evidenced by the prominent induction of serum IgG and nasal wash IgA, respectively. On the other hand, no significant immune responses were observed in mice immunized with OML-HN without the adjuvant. Furthermore, serum from mice immunized with OML-HN plus poly(I:C) significantly suppressed viral infection in cell culture model. Our results provide the first evidence that intranasal co-administration of OML-encapsulated HN with the poly(I:C) adjuvant augments the viral-specific immunity against HPIV3.
Frontiers in Microbiology 11/2013; 4:346. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2013.00346 · 3.99 Impact Factor
"HPIV3 is a member of family Paramyxoviridae, and is an enveloped virus with a single negative-sense strand of genomic RNA of 15,462 nucleotides. Live-attenuated pediatric vaccines against HPIV3 are actively being developed that include the use of HPIV3 as a vector to express protective antigens of other pediatric viruses (Durbin et al., 2000; Karron et al., 2003). Thus, there is substantial experience with the natural history of HPIV3 in humans and with the administration of HPIV3 derivatives in clinical trials. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously used human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) as a vector to express the Ebola virus (EBOV) GP glycoprotein. The resulting HPIV3/EboGP vaccine was immunogenic and protective against EBOV challenge in a non-human primate model. However, it remained unclear whether the vaccine would be effective in adults due to preexisting immunity to HPIV3. Here, the immunogenicity of HPIV3/EboGP was compared in HPIV3-naive and HPIV3-immune Rhesus monkeys. After a single dose of HPIV3/EboGP, the titers of EBOV-specific serum ELISA or neutralization antibodies were substantially less in HPIV3-immune animals compared to HPIV3-naive animals. However, after two doses, which were previously determined to be required for complete protection against EBOV challenge, the antibody titers were indistinguishable between the two groups. The vaccine virus appeared to replicate, at a reduced level, in the respiratory tract despite the preexisting immunity. This may reflect the known ability of HPIV3 to re-infect and may also reflect the presence of EBOV GP in the vector virion, which confers resistance to neutralization in vitro by HPIV3-specific antibodies. These data suggest that HPIV3/EboGP will be immunogenic in adults as well as children.
"Live attenuated RSV vaccines have never been linked to this phenomenon, and are capable of inducing systemic and mucosal immune responses      . Additionally , attenuated mucosal vaccines have been shown to be immunogenic in the face of pre-existing maternally derived antibodies   . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MEDI-534 is a bivalent live attenuated vaccine candidate against human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV3) that was previously shown to be immunogenic and to protect rodents and African green monkeys from wild-type (wt) hRSV challenge. We performed further preclinical evaluations to address the safety of MEDI-534 prior to human testing. MEDI-534 did not predispose rodents to enhanced RSV disease following wt-RSV challenge, and the tissue tropism of the chimeric virus was confined to the respiratory tract. Representative clinical trial material did not produce toxicity in rats. In adults, MEDI-534 was highly restricted in replication, did not boost RSV and PIV3 antibody titers, and produced no medically significant vaccine-related adverse events thereby warranting further evaluation in pediatric populations.
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