Factors associated with ambivalence about bone marrow donation among newly recruited unrelated potential donors
ABSTRACT Previous research has indicated that feelings of ambivalence about donation are associated with donors' decisions not to donate and with less positive physical and psychosocial outcomes among donors who donated despite feeling ambivalent. The current study examines the prevalence of ambivalence among newly recruited potential bone marrow donors and identifies factors associated with greater ambivalence.
Using a cross-sectional design, questionnaires were mailed to a stratified random sample of individuals newly recruited to the National Marrow Donor Program registry at 71 local donor centers. A total of 426 new recruits (63%) completed and returned the questionnaire.
Bivariate analyses indicated that multiple recruitment experience and donor perception variables were significantly associated with ambivalence. Multivariate analysis revealed that the following eight variables were uniquely associated with higher levels of ambivalence after adjusting for the effects of other key indicators: participating in other volunteer activities, joining at a drive for a specific patient, perceiving the recruitment staff as less informative, being discouraged from joining by others, not having an intrinsic commitment to donate, being encouraged by one's culture or religion to join, believing there are risks to donation, and having a greater number of medical, work, and family concerns about donation.
Potential donors who are motivated by an intrinsic commitment to donate, rather than extrinsic pressure, are less ambivalent about donating. In addition, recruitment staff have a potentially critical role in reducing ambivalence among new recruits by providing information that may allay any unrealistic concerns recruits may have about the medical risks and impact of donation on work and family.
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ABSTRACT: The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) has had remarkable success at recruiting potential bone marrow donors and recently has become increasingly focused on the retention of registered volunteers. This study extends the authors' work examining factors associated with attrition from the registry. Its goal was to determine which characteristics from six psychosocial domains were associated with attrition at two key stages leading to donation. Questionnaires were mailed to potential donors after they were contacted as a potential match and had decided whether or not to continue toward donation. Our final sample included 1,727 volunteers who decided to continue with typing at the DR stage and 195 volunteers who decided to continue at the confirmatory typing (CT) stage as well as 179 and 169 individuals, respectively, who declined further participation in the registry at DR and CT stages. Bivariate analyses indicated that multiple factors in all six domains (demographics, volunteer-related, general psychosocial, recruitment-related, donation-related, and contact with center staff) were associated with discontinued registry participation. Logistic regression indicated that unique associations were concentrated in volunteer-related, donation-related, and contact with center domains. Findings suggested that intrinsic commitment to donation, more realistic expectations, fewer medical concerns, and greater contact with the donor center were all associated with lower attrition. Possible interventions to reduce attrition are discussed.Transplantation 06/2004; 77(10):1529-34. DOI:10.1097/01.TP.0000122219.35928.D6 · 3.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As bone marrow transplantation (BMT) increases, the availability of suitable donors becomes critical, especially for African Americans, who require a large donor pool to find a suitable match. Previous studies indicated willingness to donate marrow may be a barrier for achieving a large donor pool. We conducted a random-sample, statewide telephone survey of 421 Caucasians and 408 African Americans in South Carolina to determine if racial differences in willingness to donate bone marrow exist. We assessed a general level of willingness, asking, "Will you be willing to be a marrow donor?" We assessed an additional level of willingness, asking, "Are you willing to be contacted about bone marrow donation?" We detected no racial differences in general willingness to donate (Caucasians 34%, African Americans 32%, P=.52), although there was a difference in willingness to be contacted to sign-up for the registry (Caucasians 18.3%, African Americans 11%, P=.003). African Americans were more aware that better matches occur within the same race (P <.0001). Caucasians were more knowledgeable about the registry (P <.0001). Younger, more highly educated respondents indicated a greater willingness to be donors. In both races, fear of pain was the most common reason for unwillingness to donate, and it was significantly higher in African Americans. Our study suggests reported lack of general willingness does not explain the racial disparities in BMT. Many who expressed willingness to donate were not willing to be contacted to sign up for the registry, especially African Americans. Education and adequate pain control may improve minority recruitment.Transplantation Proceedings 01/2005; 36(10):3212-9. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2004.10.019 · 0.95 Impact Factor