Plastination and computerized 3D reconstruction of the temporal bone.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to generate a computerized 3D reconstruction of the temporal bone and intratemporal structures. A plastination technique was used to obtain equidistant serial thin sections of 1.2 mm thickness and, on an SGI workstation, a Contour-Marching Cubes algorithm was selected to reconstruct the temporal bone and intratemporal structures in three dimensions. All reconstructed structures can be represented individually or jointly and rotated in any plane. Any diameter and angle of a structure can be conveniently measured. The capability of reconstructing individual and combined images of intratemporal structures, viewing them from all surgical angles, and accurately measuring their spatial relationships gives skull base and otologic surgeons important guidance. The reconstructed model can also be used for resident education, rehearsal of an unfamiliar surgery, and for developing a new surgical approach.
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ABSTRACT: To develop a three-dimensional (3-D) virtual model of a human temporal bone and surrounding structures. A fresh-frozen human temporal bone was serially sectioned and digital images of the surface of the tissue block were recorded (the 'Visible Ear'). The image stack was resampled at a final resolution of 50 x 50 x 50/100 micro m/voxel, registered in custom software and segmented in PhotoShop 7.0. The segmented image layers were imported into Amira 3.1 to generate smooth polygonal surface models. The 3-D virtual model presents the structures of the middle, inner and outer ears in their surgically relevant surroundings. It is packaged within a cross-platform freeware, which allows for full rotation, visibility and transparency control, as well as the ability to slice the 3-D model open at any section. The appropriate raw image can be superimposed on the cleavage plane. The model can be downloaded at: (https://research.meei.harvard.edu/Otopathology/3dmodels/).ORL 02/2007; 69(2):63-7. · 0.91 Impact Factor
Article: Computerised 3-D anatomical modelling using plastinates: an example utilising the human heart.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Computerised modelling methods have become highly useful for generating electronic representations of anatomical structures. These methods rely on crosssectional tissue slices in databases such as the Visible Human Male and Female, the Visible Korean Human, and the Visible Chinese Human. However, these databases are time consuming to generate and require labour-intensive manual digitisation while the number of specimens is very limited. Plastinated anatomical material could provide a possible alternative to data collection, requiring less time to prepare and enabling the use of virtually any anatomical or pathological structure routinely obtained in a gross anatomy laboratory. The purpose of this study was to establish an approach utilising plastinated anatomical material, specifically human hearts, for the purpose computerised 3-D modelling. Human hearts were collected following gross anatomical dissection and subjected to routine plastination procedures including dehydration (-25(o)C), defatting, forced impregnation, and curing at room temperature. A graphics pipeline was established comprising data collection with a hand-held scanner, 3-D modelling, model polishing, file conversion, and final rendering. Representative models were viewed and qualitatively assessed for accuracy and detail. The results showed that the heart model provided detailed surface information necessary for gross anatomical instructional purposes. Rendering tools facilitated optional model manipulation for further structural clarification if selected by the user. The use of plastinated material for generating 3-D computerised models has distinct advantages compared to cross-sectional tissue images.Folia morphologica 08/2011; 70(3):191-6. · 0.52 Impact Factor
Article: Three-dimensional virtual model of the human temporal bone: a stand-alone, downloadable teaching tool.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To develop a three-dimensional virtual model of a human temporal bone based on serial histologic sections. The three-dimensional anatomy of the human temporal bone is complex, and learning it is a challenge for students in basic science and in clinical medicine. Every fifth histologic section from a normal 14-year-old male was digitized and imported into a general purpose three-dimensional rendering and analysis software package called Amira (version 3.1). The sections were aligned, and anatomic structures of interest were segmented. The three-dimensional model is a surface rendering of these structures of interest, which currently includes the bone and air spaces of the temporal bone; the perilymph and endolymph spaces; the sensory epithelia of the cochlear and vestibular labyrinths; the ossicles and tympanic membrane; the middle ear muscles; the carotid artery; and the cochlear, vestibular, and facial nerves. For each structure, the surface transparency can be individually controlled, thereby revealing the three-dimensional relations between surface landmarks and underlying structures. The three-dimensional surface model can also be "sliced open" at any section and the appropriate raw histologic image superimposed on the cleavage plane. The image stack can also be resectioned in any arbitrary plane. This model is a powerful teaching tool for learning the complex anatomy of the human temporal bone and for relating the two-dimensional morphology seen in a histologic section to the three-dimensional anatomy. The model can be downloaded from the Eaton-Peabody Laboratory web site, packaged within a cross-platform freeware three-dimensional viewer, which allows full rotation and transparency control.Ontology & Neurotology 07/2006; 27(4):452-7. · 1.90 Impact Factor