The effect of C(2)-ceramide, a membrane-permeable ceramide analogue, on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was studied. The non-toxic concentration of C(2)-ceramide inhibited LPS-induced NO production. It was due to the attenuated expression of the inducible type of NO synthase (iNOS). C(2)-ceramide did not influence the phosphorylation of a series of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in response to LPS. On the other hand, C(2)-ceramide down-regulated the phosphorylation of Akt in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, followed by the impairment of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation. Moreover, the Akt dominant-negative mutant inhibited LPS-induced NO production. C(2)-ceramide was suggested to inhibit LPS-induced NO production through down-regulating the activation of Akt.
"Pathway Profiling Luciferase System 2, BD Biosciences Clontech, Palo Alto, CA, USA) and 0.05 lg of pRL-TK plasmid (Promega,Madison, WI, USA) using the lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent (Gibco- BRL)  "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to determine effects of U0126, a specific inhibitor of mitogen-activated kinase kinase 1/2, on production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. U0126 significantly enhanced NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not CpG DNA or interferon-gamma-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In contrast, U0124, a negative control for U0126, did not affect LPS-induced NO production. Further, a series of inhibitors of p38, phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase and Janus tyrosine kinase rather caused suppression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. U0126 was found to definitely inhibit phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1/2 and augment the levels of inducible type of NO synthase. Antisense oligonucleotides of Erk1/2 also augmented LPS-induced NO production. Inactivation of Erk1/2 by U0126 furthermore inhibited LPS-induced activating protein-1 activation, but not nuclear factor-kappaB activation. The results suggest that Erk1/2 might negatively regulate NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of piceatannol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production was examined. Piceatannol significantly inhibited NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The inhibition was due to the reduced expression of an inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS). The inhibitory effect of piceatannol was mediated by down-regulation of LPS-induced nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation, but not by its cytotoxic action. Piceatannol inhibited IkappaB kinase (IKK)-alpha and beta phosphorylation, and subsequently IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. On the other hand, piceatannol did not affect activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases including extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2), p38 and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK). Piceatannol inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and Raf-1 molecules, which regulated the activation of IKK-alpha and beta phosphorylation. The detailed mechanism of the inhibition of LPS-induced NO production by piceatannol is discussed.
Microbiology and Immunology 02/2004; 48(10):729-36. DOI:10.1111/j.1348-0421.2004.tb03598.x · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of D-galactosamine (D-GalN) on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells was examined. D-GalN augmented the production of NO, but not tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Pretreatment of D-GalN augmented the NO production whereas its post-treatment did not. D-GalN augmented the NO production in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with either TNF-alpha and interferon-gamma. The augmentation of LPS-induced NO production by D-GalN was due to enhanced expressions of an inducible type of NO synthase mRNA and proteins. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were exclusively generated in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with D-GalN and LPS. Scavenging of intracellular ROS abrogated the augmentation of NO production. It was therefore suggested that D-GalN might augment LPS-induced NO production through the generation of intracellular ROS.
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