Endogenous G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 triggers homologous beta-adrenergic receptor desensitization in primary uterine smooth muscle cells.
ABSTRACT We previously reported that G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) may contribute to beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) uncoupling occurring just before parturition in rat uterine muscle (myometrium). To identify the GRK involved, we set up in this study a primary cell culture retaining the morphological and functional characteristics of myometrial tissue as well as the in vivo pattern of GRK expression (GRK2, GRK5, and GRK6). In this model, homologous beta-AR desensitization was assessed by an approximately 60% decrease in cAMP production to a subsequent challenge with the beta-agonist, isoproterenol. Desensitization was reduced by 36% with a GRK inhibitor, heparin, and by 31% with a protein kinase A in-hibitor, H89. Using antibodies known to specifically inhibit either GRK2/3 or GRK4-6 families, we demonstrated that only the GRK4-6 family mediated beta-AR desensitization. To discriminate between endogenous GRK5 and GRK6, we attempted to inhibit their action by introducing, into myometrial cells, kinase-dead dominant-negative mutants ((K215R)GRK5 and (K215R)GRK6). Expression of (K215R)GRK6 increased by approximately 70% the cAMP response to isoproterenol without effect on forskolin stimulation. Conversely, expression of (K215R)GRK5 or (K220R)GRK2 had no effect on beta-adrenergic signaling. These results strongly suggest that endogenous GRK6 mediate homologous beta-AR desensitization in myometrial cells.
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ABSTRACT: The uterotonins oxytocin and histamine, mediate contractile signals through specific G protein-coupled receptors, a process which is tightly controlled during gestation to prevent preterm labour. We previously identified G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)2 and GRK6 as respective cardinal negative regulators of histamine H(1) and oxytocin receptor signalling. GRK-mediated phosphorylation promotes arrestin recruitment, not only desensitizing receptors but activating an increasing number of diverse signalling pathways. Here we investigate potential roles that arrestins play in the regulation of myometrial oxytocin/histamine H(1) receptor signalling. Endogenous arrestins2 and 3 were specifically depleted using RNA-interference in a human myometrial cell line and the consequences of this for G protein-coupled receptor-mediated signalling were assessed using Ca(2+) /inositol 1,4,5-trisphophate imaging and standard mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) assays. Depletion of arrestin3, but not arrestin2 enhanced and prolonged H(1) receptor-stimulated Ca(2+) responses, whilst depletion of either arrestin increased oxytocin receptor responses. Arrestin3 depletion decreased H(1) receptor desensitization, whilst removal of either arrestin isoform was equally effective in preventing oxytocin receptor desensitization. Following arrestin3 depletion oxytocin-induced phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 signals were diminished and histamine-stimulated signals virtually absent, whereas depletion of arrestin2 augmented extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 responses to each agonist. Conversely, depletion of arrestin3 enhanced p38 signals to each agonist, whilst arrestin2 suppression increased oxytocin-, but not histamine-induced p38 MAPK responses. Arrestin proteins are key regulators of H(1) and oxytocin receptor desensitization, and play integral roles mediating uterotonin-stimulated MAPK-signalling. These data provide insights into the in situ regulation of these receptor subtypes and may inform pathophysiological functioning in preterm labour.British Journal of Pharmacology 12/2010; 162(7):1603-17. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dopamine is an important regulator of systemic blood pressure via multiple mechanisms. It affects fluid and electrolyte balance by its actions on renal hemodynamics and epithelial ion and water transport and by regulation of hormones and humoral agents. The kidney synthesizes dopamine from circulating or filtered l-DOPA independently from innervation. The major determinants of the renal tubular synthesis/release of dopamine are probably sodium intake and intracellular sodium. Dopamine exerts its actions via two families of cell surface receptors, D1-like receptors comprising D1R and D5R, and D2-like receptors comprising D2R, D3R, and D4R, and by interactions with other G protein-coupled receptors. D1-like receptors are linked to vasodilation, while the effect of D2-like receptors on the vasculature is variable and probably dependent upon the state of nerve activity. Dopamine secreted into the tubular lumen acts mainly via D1-like receptors in an autocrine/paracrine manner to regulate ion transport in the proximal and distal nephron. These effects are mediated mainly by tubular mechanisms and augmented by hemodynamic mechanisms. The natriuretic effect of D1-like receptors is caused by inhibition of ion transport in the apical and basolateral membranes. D2-like receptors participate in the inhibition of ion transport during conditions of euvolemia and moderate volume expansion. Dopamine also controls ion transport and blood pressure by regulating the production of reactive oxygen species and the inflammatory response. Essential hypertension is associated with abnormalities in dopamine production, receptor number, and/or posttranslational modification. © 2011 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 1:1075-1117, 2011.Comprehensive Physiology. 07/2011; 1(3):1075-117.
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ABSTRACT: Efficient engulfment of apoptotic cells is critical for maintaining tissue homoeostasis. When phagocytes recognize 'eat me' signals presented on the surface of apoptotic cells, this subsequently induces cytoskeletal rearrangement of phagocytes for the engulfment through Rac1 activation. However, the intracellular signalling cascades that result in Rac1 activation remain largely unknown. Here we show that G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6) is involved in apoptotic cell clearance. GRK6 cooperates with GIT1 to activate Rac1, which promotes apoptotic engulfment independently from the two known DOCK180/ELMO/Rac1 and GULP1/Rac1 engulfment pathways. As a consequence, GRK6-deficient mice develop an autoimmune disease. GRK6-deficient mice also have increased iron stores in splenic red pulp in which F4/80(+) macrophages are responsible for senescent red blood cell clearance. Our results reveal previously unrecognized roles for GRK6 in regulating apoptotic engulfment and its fundamental importance in immune and iron homoeostasis.Nature Communications 02/2013; 4:1532. · 10.74 Impact Factor