We previously reported that G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) may contribute to beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) uncoupling occurring just before parturition in rat uterine muscle (myometrium). To identify the GRK involved, we set up in this study a primary cell culture retaining the morphological and functional characteristics of myometrial tissue as well as the in vivo pattern of GRK expression (GRK2, GRK5, and GRK6). In this model, homologous beta-AR desensitization was assessed by an approximately 60% decrease in cAMP production to a subsequent challenge with the beta-agonist, isoproterenol. Desensitization was reduced by 36% with a GRK inhibitor, heparin, and by 31% with a protein kinase A in-hibitor, H89. Using antibodies known to specifically inhibit either GRK2/3 or GRK4-6 families, we demonstrated that only the GRK4-6 family mediated beta-AR desensitization. To discriminate between endogenous GRK5 and GRK6, we attempted to inhibit their action by introducing, into myometrial cells, kinase-dead dominant-negative mutants ((K215R)GRK5 and (K215R)GRK6). Expression of (K215R)GRK6 increased by approximately 70% the cAMP response to isoproterenol without effect on forskolin stimulation. Conversely, expression of (K215R)GRK5 or (K220R)GRK2 had no effect on beta-adrenergic signaling. These results strongly suggest that endogenous GRK6 mediate homologous beta-AR desensitization in myometrial cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) comprise a family of seven mammalian serine/threonine protein kinases that phosphorylate and regulate agonist-occupied or constitutively active G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Studies of the details and consequences of these mechanisms have focused heavily on the original beta-adrenoceptor kinase (beta-ARK) family (GRK2 and GRK3) and, in particular, on phosphorylation-dependent recruitment of adaptor proteins such as the beta-arrestins. However, recent work has indicated roles for the other, non-visual GRKs (GRK4, GRK5 and GRK6) and has revealed potential phosphorylation-independent regulation of GPCRs by GRK2 and GRK3. In this article, we review this newer information and attempt to put it into context with GRKs as physiological regulators that could be appropriate targets for future pharmacological intervention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of beta2-agonists in preterm delivery is reduced by several factors. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of late pregnancy in the uterus-relaxing effect of terbutaline in the rat in vitro. Rat uterine tissues from late pregnancy (days 15, 18, 20 and 22) were used. In vitro electrical field-stimulation (EFS) was used to evoke contractions. The radioligand-binding technique, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and radioimmunoassay technique were used to determine the beta-adrenergic receptor density and mRNA level and the plasma sex hormone level, respectively. The activated G-protein level of the beta-adrenergic receptors was investigated by a radiolabelled GTP binding assay.EFS-induced contractions were inhibited by terbutaline. This effect decreased towards term with respect to both the EC50 and maximal inhibition values. A drop in plasma progesterone level was also detected. Binding studies revealed an increase in beta-adrenergic receptor number on the last day of pregnancy, which correlated with the change in receptor mRNA level. The G-protein-activating effect of terbutaline decreased continuously between days 15 and 20. Surprisingly, terbutaline decreased the G-protein activation to below the basal level on day 22. However, progesterone pretreatment set back the uterine action of terbutaline, increased the density of the beta2-adrenergic receptors and their mRNA level and increased the G-protein-activating property of terbutaline. These data provide evidence of a pregnancy-induced decrease in activated G-protein level after beta2-agonist stimulation. The decrease in plasma progesterone level has a crucial role in this process. The effects of beta2-adrenergic receptor agonists in tocolytic therapy may possibly be potentiated with progesterone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) interact with the agonist-activated form of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to effect receptor phosphorylation and to initiate profound impairment of receptor signalling, or desensitization. GPCRs form the largest family of cell surface receptors known and defects in GRK function have the potential consequence to affect GPCR-stimulated biological responses in many pathological situations. This review focuses on the physiological role of GRKs revealed by genetically modified animals but also develops the involvement of GRKs in human diseases as, Oguchi disease, heart failure, hypertension or rhumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, the regulation of GRK levels in opiate addiction, cancers, psychiatric diseases, cystic fibrosis and cardiac diseases is discussed. Both transgenic mice and human pathologies have demonstrated the importance of GRKs in the signalling pathways of rhodopsin, beta-adrenergic and dopamine-1 receptors. The modulation of GRK activity in animal models of cardiac diseases can be effective to restore cardiac function in heart failure and opens a novel therapeutic strategy in diseases with GPCR dysregulation.
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