Endogenous G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 triggers homologous beta-adrenergic receptor desensitization in primary uterine smooth muscle cells.
ABSTRACT We previously reported that G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) may contribute to beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) uncoupling occurring just before parturition in rat uterine muscle (myometrium). To identify the GRK involved, we set up in this study a primary cell culture retaining the morphological and functional characteristics of myometrial tissue as well as the in vivo pattern of GRK expression (GRK2, GRK5, and GRK6). In this model, homologous beta-AR desensitization was assessed by an approximately 60% decrease in cAMP production to a subsequent challenge with the beta-agonist, isoproterenol. Desensitization was reduced by 36% with a GRK inhibitor, heparin, and by 31% with a protein kinase A in-hibitor, H89. Using antibodies known to specifically inhibit either GRK2/3 or GRK4-6 families, we demonstrated that only the GRK4-6 family mediated beta-AR desensitization. To discriminate between endogenous GRK5 and GRK6, we attempted to inhibit their action by introducing, into myometrial cells, kinase-dead dominant-negative mutants ((K215R)GRK5 and (K215R)GRK6). Expression of (K215R)GRK6 increased by approximately 70% the cAMP response to isoproterenol without effect on forskolin stimulation. Conversely, expression of (K215R)GRK5 or (K220R)GRK2 had no effect on beta-adrenergic signaling. These results strongly suggest that endogenous GRK6 mediate homologous beta-AR desensitization in myometrial cells.
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ABSTRACT: The uterotonins oxytocin and histamine, mediate contractile signals through specific G protein-coupled receptors, a process which is tightly controlled during gestation to prevent preterm labour. We previously identified G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)2 and GRK6 as respective cardinal negative regulators of histamine H(1) and oxytocin receptor signalling. GRK-mediated phosphorylation promotes arrestin recruitment, not only desensitizing receptors but activating an increasing number of diverse signalling pathways. Here we investigate potential roles that arrestins play in the regulation of myometrial oxytocin/histamine H(1) receptor signalling. Endogenous arrestins2 and 3 were specifically depleted using RNA-interference in a human myometrial cell line and the consequences of this for G protein-coupled receptor-mediated signalling were assessed using Ca(2+) /inositol 1,4,5-trisphophate imaging and standard mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) assays. Depletion of arrestin3, but not arrestin2 enhanced and prolonged H(1) receptor-stimulated Ca(2+) responses, whilst depletion of either arrestin increased oxytocin receptor responses. Arrestin3 depletion decreased H(1) receptor desensitization, whilst removal of either arrestin isoform was equally effective in preventing oxytocin receptor desensitization. Following arrestin3 depletion oxytocin-induced phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 signals were diminished and histamine-stimulated signals virtually absent, whereas depletion of arrestin2 augmented extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 responses to each agonist. Conversely, depletion of arrestin3 enhanced p38 signals to each agonist, whilst arrestin2 suppression increased oxytocin-, but not histamine-induced p38 MAPK responses. Arrestin proteins are key regulators of H(1) and oxytocin receptor desensitization, and play integral roles mediating uterotonin-stimulated MAPK-signalling. These data provide insights into the in situ regulation of these receptor subtypes and may inform pathophysiological functioning in preterm labour.British Journal of Pharmacology 12/2010; 162(7):1603-17. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Complex interactions between genes and environment result in a sodium-induced elevation in blood pressure (salt sensitivity) and/or hypertension that lead to significant morbidity and mortality affecting up to 25% of the middle-aged adult population worldwide. Determining the etiology of genetic and/or environmentally-induced high blood pressure has been difficult because of the many interacting systems involved. Two main pathways have been implicated as principal determinants of blood pressure since they are located in the kidney (the key organ responsible for blood pressure regulation), and have profound effects on sodium balance: the dopaminergic and renin-angiotensin systems. These systems counteract or modulate each other, in concert with a host of intracellular second messenger pathways to regulate sodium and water balance. In particular, the G protein-coupled receptor kinase type 4 (GRK4) appears to play a key role in regulating dopaminergic-mediated natriuresis. Constitutively activated GRK4 gene variants (R65L, A142V, and A486V), by themselves or by their interaction with other genes involved in blood pressure regulation, are associated with essential hypertension and/or salt-sensitive hypertension in several ethnic groups. GRK4γ 142Vtransgenic mice are hypertensive on normal salt intake while GRK4γ 486V transgenic mice develop hypertension only with an increase in salt intake. GRK4 gene variants have been shown to hyperphosphorylate, desensitize, and internalize two members of the dopamine receptor family, the D(1) (D(1)R) and D(3) (D(3)R) dopamine receptors, but also increase the expression of a key receptor of the renin-angiotensin system, the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT(1)R). Knowledge of the numerous blood pressure regulatory pathways involving angiotensin and dopamine may provide new therapeutic approaches to the pharmacological regulation of sodium excretion and ultimately blood pressure control.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2010; 1802(12):1259-67. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Efficient engulfment of apoptotic cells is critical for maintaining tissue homoeostasis. When phagocytes recognize 'eat me' signals presented on the surface of apoptotic cells, this subsequently induces cytoskeletal rearrangement of phagocytes for the engulfment through Rac1 activation. However, the intracellular signalling cascades that result in Rac1 activation remain largely unknown. Here we show that G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6) is involved in apoptotic cell clearance. GRK6 cooperates with GIT1 to activate Rac1, which promotes apoptotic engulfment independently from the two known DOCK180/ELMO/Rac1 and GULP1/Rac1 engulfment pathways. As a consequence, GRK6-deficient mice develop an autoimmune disease. GRK6-deficient mice also have increased iron stores in splenic red pulp in which F4/80(+) macrophages are responsible for senescent red blood cell clearance. Our results reveal previously unrecognized roles for GRK6 in regulating apoptotic engulfment and its fundamental importance in immune and iron homoeostasis.Nature Communications 02/2013; 4:1532. · 10.74 Impact Factor