How specific are deficits in mismatch negativity generation to schizophrenia?
ABSTRACT Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an auditory event-related potential that provides an index of auditory sensory memory. Deficits in MMN generation have been repeatedly demonstrated in chronic schizophrenia. Their specificity to schizophrenia has not been established.
Mismatch negativity to both duration and frequency deviants was investigated in gender- and age-matched patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 26), bipolar disorder (n = 16), or major depression (n = 22) and healthy control subjects (n = 25).
Only patients with schizophrenia demonstrated significantly smaller mean MMN than did healthy control subjects. Detailed analyses showed significantly smaller MMN to both duration and frequency deviants in patients with schizophrenia than in healthy control subjects; however, the reduction of frequency MMN in patients with schizophrenia was not significant in the comparison across all groups. Mismatch negativity topography did not differ among groups. No consistent correlations with clinical, psychopathologic, or treatment variables were observed.
Mismatch negativity deficits, and by extension deficits in early cortical auditory information processing, appear to be specific to schizophrenia. Animal and human studies implicate dysfunctional N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor functioning in MMN deficits. Thus MMN deficits may become a useful endophenotype to investigate the genetic underpinnings of schizophrenia, particularly with regard to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor.
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ABSTRACT: Sensory processing deficits, first investigated by Kraepelin and Bleuler as possible pathophysiological mechanisms in schizophrenia, are now being recharacterized in the context of our current understanding of the molecular and neurobiological brain mechanisms involved. The National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria position these deficits as intermediaries between molecular and cellular mechanisms and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia, such as hallucinations. The prepulse inhibition of startle responses by a weaker preceding tone, the inhibitory gating of response to paired sensory stimuli characterized using the auditory P50 evoked response, and the detection of slight deviations in patterns of sensory stimulation eliciting the cortical mismatch negativity potential demonstrate deficits in early sensory processing mechanisms, whose molecular and neurobiological bases are increasingly well understood. Deficits in sensory processing underlie more complex cognitive dysfunction and are in turn affected by higher-level cognitive difficulties. These deficits are now being used to identify genes involved in familial transmission of schizophrenia and to monitor potentially therapeutic drug effects for both treatment and prevention. This research also provides a clinical reminder that patients' sensory perception of the surrounding world, even during treatment sessions, may differ considerably from others' perceptions. A person's ability to understand and interact effectively with the surrounding world ultimately depends on an underlying sensory experience of it.American Journal of Psychiatry 01/2015; 172(1):17-31. DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13121691 · 13.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The notion that schizophrenia is characterised by increased non-right-handedness is a cornerstone of the theory that schizophrenia arises from, and is genetically linked to, abnormal brain lateralisation. Reviews and meta-analyses have reported higher rates of non-right-handers in patients with schizophrenia. However, this was suggested to be the result of a gender artefact or a hidden bias in self-report handedness questionnaires. Aims To investigate using a meta-analytical approach whether the excess of non-right-handedness is seen in both females and males, and also when handedness is assessed behaviourally. Method Electronic databases were searched for studies that reported (a) the rate of female and male non-right-handers in schizophrenia compared with controls and (b) the rate of non-right-handers in schizophrenia (regardless of gender) based on behavioural handedness assessment. Results The odds ratios (ORs) for females (OR = 1.63; based on 621 patients, 3747 controls) and males (OR = 1.50; based on 1213 patients, 3800 controls) differed significantly from 1.0, indicating both female and male patients were more often non-right-handed than controls. Moreover, there was an excess of non-right-handedness in patients with schizophrenia when handedness was assessed behaviourally: OR = 1.84 (1255 patients, 6260 controls). Even when both gender and behavioural handedness assessment were controlled for simultaneously, the excess of non-right-handedness persisted. Conclusions The findings clearly demonstrate that the excess of non-right-handedness in schizophrenia does not result from a gender artefact or from biased handedness questionnaires. It is a true empirical effect and may indeed reflect a genetic link between schizophrenia and brain lateralisation.The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 10/2014; 205(4):260-267. DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.113.137349 · 6.62 Impact Factor
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 01/2013; 7. DOI:10.3389/conf.fnhum.2013.212.00092 · 2.90 Impact Factor