Effect of fluvastatin on cardiac outcomes in renal transplant recipients: a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial
ABSTRACT Renal transplant recipients are at increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease. Although statins reduce cardiovascular risk in the general population, their efficacy and safety in renal transplant recipients have not been established. We investigated the effects of fluvastatin on cardiac and renal endpoints in this population.
We did a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 2102 renal transplant recipients with total cholesterol 4.0-9.0 mmol/L. We randomly assigned patients fluvastatin (n=1050) or placebo (n=1052) and follow up was for 5-6 years. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of a major adverse cardiac event, defined as cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), or coronary intervention procedure. Secondary endpoints were individual cardiac events, combined cardiac death or non-fatal MI, cerebrovascular events, non-cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality, and graft loss or doubling of serum creatinine. Analysis was by intention to treat.
After a mean follow-up of 5.1 years, fluvastatin lowered LDL cholesterol concentrations by 32%. Risk reduction with fluvastatin for the primary endpoint (risk ratio 0.83 [95% CI 0.64-1.06], p=0.139) was not significant, although there were fewer cardiac deaths or non-fatal MI (70 vs 104, 0.65 [0.48-0.88] p=0.005) in the fluvastatin group than in the placebo group. Coronary intervention procedures and other secondary endpoints did not differ significantly between groups.
Although cardiac deaths and non-fatal MI seemed to be reduced, fluvastatin did not generally reduce rates of coronary intervention procedures or mortality. Overall effects of fluvastatin were similar to those of statins in other populations.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Patients with kidney diseases continue to experience significant cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Although there are many important risk factors playing a role in the pathogenesis of CVD in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, dyslipidemia (elevated triglycerides, elevated oxidized low-density lipoprotein and low/dysfunctional low high-density) represents one of the modifiable risk factors. Renal failure patients have unique lipid abnormalities which not only have complex role in pathogenesis of CVD but also cause relative resistance to usual interventions. Most of the randomized trials have been in hemodialysis population and data from CKD non-dialysis, peritoneal dialysis and renal transplant populations is extremely limited. Compared to general population, evidence of mortality benefit of lipid lowering medications in CKD population is scarce. Future research should be directed towards establishing long term benefits and side effects of lipid lowering medications, through randomized trials, in CKD population.
Circulation 02/2015; DOI:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000183 · 14.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Over the last two decades in particular there has been a remarkable increase in the number of solid organ transplants being performed worldwide alongside improvements in long-term survival rates. However, the infrastructure at transplant centres has been unable to keep pace with the current volume of the transplant patient work load. These pressures on transplant specialist centres has led to calls for an increased role of the general practitioner (GP) managing particular aspects of transplant patients' medical care. Indeed, many aspects of follow-up care such as screening for malignancies, preventing infection through immunisation programmes, and managing cardiovascular risk factors are already important aspects of family practice medicine. This paper aims to review some of the aspects of transplant patient care that is important for healthcare workers in family practice to manage.