Targeting striatal cholinergic interneurons in Parkinson's disease: focus on metabotropic glutamate receptors.
ABSTRACT In the early sixties, anticholinergic drugs were introduced in the pharmacological treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). The rationale behind their utilisation in the treatment of the disease was based on the evidence of an imbalance between the dopaminergic inputs and the intrinsic cholinergic innervation within the striatum. Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors have been shown to play a key role in striatal function both in physiological conditions and in experimental models of diseases affecting this brain area. Indeed, compelling electrophysiological and morphological evidence shows that mGlu receptors are highly expressed at cellular level and exert a profound modulatory role on cholinergic interneurons excitability. This review will provide a brief survey of studies on the localization and function of mGlu receptors in cholinergic interneurons. The potential relevance of these findings in the control of motor function and in the treatment of PD will be discussed.
- SourceAvailable from: Cyril GoudetPharmacology, 03/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0222-9
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ABSTRACT: The striatum is composed principally of GABAergic, medium spiny striatal projection neurons (MSNs) that can be categorized based on their gene expression, electrophysiological profiles, and input-output circuits. Major subdivisions of MSN populations include (1) those in ventromedial and dorsolateral striatal regions, (2) those giving rise to the direct and indirect pathways, and (3) those that lie in the striosome and matrix compartments. The first two classificatory schemes have enabled advances in understanding of how basal ganglia circuits contribute to disease. However, despite the large number of molecules that are differentially expressed in the striosomes or the extra-striosomal matrix, and the evidence that these compartments have different input-output connections, our understanding of how this compartmentalization contributes to striatal function is still not clear. A broad view is that the matrix contains the direct and indirect pathway MSNs that form parts of sensorimotor and associative circuits, whereas striosomes contain MSNs that receive input from parts of limbic cortex and project directly or indirectly to the dopamine-containing neurons of the substantia nigra, pars compacta. Striosomes are widely distributed within the striatum and are thought to exert global, as well as local, influences on striatal processing by exchanging information with the surrounding matrix, including through interneurons that send processes into both compartments. It has been suggested that striosomes exert and maintain limbic control over behaviors driven by surrounding sensorimotor and associative parts of the striatal matrix. Consistent with this possibility, imbalances between striosome and matrix functions have been reported in relation to neurological disorders, including Huntington's disease, L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias, dystonia, and drug addiction. Here, we consider how signaling imbalances between the striosomes and matrix might relate to symptomatology in these disorders.Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 09/2011; 5:59. DOI:10.3389/fnana.2011.00059 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mesostriatal dopaminergic neurons and striatal cholinergic interneurons participate in signaling the motivational significance of environmental stimuli and regulate striatal plasticity. Dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) have potent interactions within the striatum at multiple levels that include presynaptic regulation of neurotransmitter release and postsynaptic effects in target cells (including ACh neurons). These interactions may be highly variable given the dynamic changes in the firing activities of parent DA and ACh neurons. Here, we consider how striatal ACh released from cholinergic interneurons acting at both nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors powerfully modulates DA transmission. This ACh-DA interaction varies in a manner that depends on the frequency of presynaptic activation, and will thus strongly influence how DA synapses convey discrete changes in DA neuron activity that are known to signal events of motivational salience. Furthermore, this ACh modulation of DA transmission within striatum occurs via different profiles of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in caudate-putamen compared to nucleus accumbens, which may ultimately enable region-specific targeting of striatal function.Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 03/2011; 5:11. DOI:10.3389/fnsys.2011.00011