Overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha diminishes pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin or transforming growth factor-beta.
ABSTRACT Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is thought to be important in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. However, surfactant protein-C/TNF-alpha transgenic mice do not spontaneously develop pulmonary fibrosis but instead develop alveolar enlargement and loss of elastic recoil. We hypothesized that overexpression of TNF-alpha in the lung requires an additional insult to produce fibrosis. In this study we evaluated whether TNF-alpha overexpression altered the development of pulmonary fibrosis due to bleomycin or transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Either 0.2 U bleomycin or saline was administered into left lung of TNF-alpha transgenic mice and their transgene-negative littermates. To overexpress TGF-beta, an adenovirus vector containing either active TGF-beta (AdTGF-beta) or LacZ was administered at a dose of 3 x 108 plaque-forming units per mouse. Fibrosis was assessed histologically and by measurement of hydroxyproline. TNF-alpha transgenic mice tolerated bleomycin or AdTGF-beta, whereas the transgene-negative littermates demonstrated severe pulmonary fibrosis after either agent. An increase in prostaglandin E2 and downregulation of TNF receptor I expression were observed in the TNF-alpha transgenic mice. In addition, recombinant human TNF-alpha attenuated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. TNF-alpha has a complex role in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Endogenous TNF-alpha may be important in the development of fibrosis as indicated in other reports, but overexpression of TNF-alpha or exogenous TNF-alpha limits pulmonary fibrosis in mice.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate protective effects of Chunggan extract (CGX), a traditional herbal formula, under 4 wk of alcohol consumption-induced liver injury.World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 11/2014; 20(42):15703-14.
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ABSTRACT: Cadmium is a potential environmental and industrial pollutant affecting human tissues and organs including liver and testes. The protective role of fenugreek seed powder (FSP) was investigated in male rats subjected to cadmium-induced testicular injury and hepatic dysfunction. Testicular damage and hepatotoxicity were induced by oral administration of cadmium chloride (5mg/kg body weight, once a day) for 7 weeks. FSP was given at 5% w/w in chow diet for 8 weeks, starting 1 week before cadmium administration. FSP intake significantly increased serum testosterone level and testis weight that were reduced by cadmium. FSP also compensated deficits in hepatic and testicular antioxidant defense system, interleukin-4 and nitric oxide levels, reduced serum liver function enzyme activities and suppressed lipid peroxidation in hepatic and testicular tissues resulted from cadmium administration. Additionally, FSP attenuated the cadmium-induced elevations in hepatic and testicular tumor necrosis factor-α and transforming growth factor-beta1 levels as well as cadmium deposition and hydroxyproline content. The protective effect afforded by FSP was mainly due its antioxidant, antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects. In conclusion, the results of the present work indicated that FSP may represent a promising medicinal herb to protect hepatic and testicular tissues from the detrimental effects of cadmium.Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie 05/2014; · 1.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The purpose of this work was to look into the effects of infliximab on wound healing in experimental glaucoma filtration surgery and to compare the antifibrotic effects of this agent to that of mitomycin-C (MMC). Methods: Twenty-eight male New Zealand White rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups, each including seven rabbits: control group, sham group, MMC group, and infliximab group. The rabbits in the control group were not operated on and did not receive any treatment. The rabbits in the sham group underwent trabeculectomy and had one drop of saline instilled four times a day for 14 days. The rabbits in the MMC treatment group underwent trabeculectomy, and a sponge soaked in 0.4 mg/mL MMC was applied intraoperatively to the scleral surgical site for three minutes. The rabbits in the infliximab treatment group underwent trabeculectomy and one drop of 10 mg/mL infliximab was instilled four times a day for 14 days after surgery. On day 14 of the experiment, the operated and control eyes were enucleated and histologically and immunohistochemically analyzed. Results: The mean fibroblast and mononuclear cell (MNC) numbers and the mean immunostaining intensities of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), fibroblast growth factor-β (FGF-β), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in the sham group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.01). The mean fibroblast and MNC numbers and the mean immunostaining intensities of TGF-β, FGF-β, and PDGF in the MMC and infliximab groups were statistically significantly lower than those of the sham group (P<0.01). The mean fibroblast and MNC numbers and the mean TGF-β, FGF-β, and PDGF immunostaining intensities of the MMC and infliximab groups were similar (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our study suggests that topical infliximab effectively suppresses the subconjunctival wound healing response after experimental glaucoma filtration surgery, reducing the MNC and fibroblast numbers and immunostaining intensities of TGF-β, FGF-β, and PDGF.Drug Design, Development and Therapy 01/2014; 8(-):421-429. · 3.03 Impact Factor