Helicobacter pylori and hetertopic gastric mucosa in the upper esophagus (the inlet patch).

Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 9.21). 07/2003; 98(6):1266-70. DOI: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2003.07488.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) may colonize gastric mucosa wherever it is found in the GI tract. Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the upper esophagus (inlet patch) is a potential site for H. pylori infection and may provide a reservoir for oral-oral transmission or a niche where antibiotics might have difficulty reaching. The aim of this study was to analyze the intensity and distribution of H. pylori in the inlet patch.
Whenever a cervical inlet patch was observed, mucosal biopsy samples were taken to confirm the endoscopic diagnosis and to search for H. pylori and active inflammation. In addition, mucosal biopsy samples were also taken from the gastric mucosa. Formalin-fixed biopsy specimens were cut and stained with a new dual stain developed in our laboratory. The stain is a combination of periodic acid-Schiff and a silver stain that allows simultaneous visualization of H. pylori and gastric type epithelium. The density of H. pylori was scored using a visual analog scale of 0 to 5. The type of mucosa in the inlet patch was also recorded.
The study included 48 patients; 37 had H. pylori gastritis and 27 of these (73%) had H. pylori identified on their heterotopic gastric mucosa. A higher density of H. pylori in the stomach was associated with a higher prevalence in the inlets. Active inflammation correlated with active infection in the inlet patch and the presence of antral type mucosa.
H. pylori colonization of heterotopic gastric mucosa in the upper esophagus is common and is closely related to the H. pylori density in the stomach. The fact that H. pylori was not found in all cases suggests that another event such as reflux may be required for H. pylori to colonize heterotopic mucosa.

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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence, demographic, clinical and histopathologic features of heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM) in Chinese patients. Patients referred to three endoscopy units were enrolled in this study. The macroscopic characteristics of HGM were documented. Biopsies were obtained and observed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Helicobacter pylori colonization was examined by Whartin-Starry staining. HGM was observed in 420 Chinese patients, yielding a prevalence of 0.4%. The majority of patients had a single patch (300/420; 71.4%), while the remainder had two (84/420; 20%) or multiple patches (36/420; 8.6%). The size of the patches and the distance from the patch to the frontal incisor teeth varied significantly. The large majority of HGM patches were flat (393/420; 93.6%), whereas the remaining patches were slightly elevated. The primary histological characteristic was fundic-type (216/420; 51.4%) within the HGM patch, and antral- (43/420; 10.2%) and transitional-type (65/420; 15.5%) mucosa were also observed. The prevalence of intestinal metaplasia was 3.1% (13/420) and the prevalence of dysplasia was 1.4% (6/420), indicating the necessity for endoscopic follow-up in patients with HGM. Esophageal and extraesophageal complaints were also observed in patients with HGM. Dysphagia and epigastric discomfort (odds ratios: 6.836 and 115.826, respectively; Ps < 0.05) were independent risk factors for HGM. Clinical complaints should be considered to improve the detection rate of HMG. The prevalence of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia also indicates a need for endoscopic follow-up.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2014; 20(46):17588-94. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i46.17588 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: HGMPE
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Oesophageal heterotopic gastric mucosa mostly presents in the upper part of the oesophagus. It is commonly under-diagnosed because of its localisation. Aim: To expose the association between heterotopic gastric mucosa and endoscopic features of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Material and methods: A total of 1860 upper endoscopic examinations performed between January 2012 and July 2013 were analysed retrospectively. Endoscopic features and histological examinations of 12 heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM) of the upper oesophagus were documented and evaluated retrospectively. Results: There were 7 (58%) male and 5 (42%) female patients aged between 22 and 80 years with a mean age of 43.2 years. Heterotopic gastric mucosa was present in 12 (0.6%) of all patients. We were able to perform biopsy for histopathological observation on 8 (66%) of the 12 patients in which HGM was seen during endoscopy. Five (42%) patients with heterotopic gastric mucosa had oesophagitis. Los Angeles Grade A oesophagitis was found in all patients, and histologically proven Barrett’s oesophagus was detected in only one patient. Conclusions: When a patient has ongoing dyspeptic complaints and reflux symptoms despite the treatment, one should be careful about possible HGM during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The point to be taken into consideration for patients who have metaplasia or dysplasia within HGM may need to be considered for surveillance.
    Przegląd Gastroenterologiczny 01/2014; 9(5). DOI:10.5114/pg.2014.45490. · 0.38 Impact Factor

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