Reversibility of cardiac abnormalities in adolescents with anorexia nervosa after weight recovery.
ABSTRACT Anorexia nervosa is a life-threatening condition, with significant risk for death due to cardiac complications. The objective of this study was to analyze the cardiac involvement in anorexia nervosa and to study the reversibility of cardiac abnormalities.
Thirty-one consecutive adolescents (aged 12 to 17 years) with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa were evaluated from January 1998 to January 1999 at the Hospital Clínic (University of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain). An electrocardiogram, an echocardiogram, a 24-hour Holter recording with heart rate variability, an exercise test, and a tilt test were performed at initial examination and after refeeding (3 to 18 months later).
The basal body mass index was 15.2 +/- 2 kg/m2. Sinus bradycardia was found in 35% of patients, 93% showed a decreased left ventricular mass, and 70% had a diminished thickness of cardiac walls. The Holter recordings showed nocturnal bradycardia in 60% with an increased heart rate variability. After refeeding, a significant decrease in QT interval (p <.05) and QT dispersion (p <.01) was observed. Echocardiograms showed an increase in cardiac diameters (p <.01), left ventricular mass (p <.001), and cardiac output (p <.001). There was also an improvement in the exercise capacity (p <.05) and a normalization of the heart rate and heart rate variability (p <.05).
Cardiac structural and functional abnormalities provoked by anorexia nervosa are reversible in young adolescents after refeeding.
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ABSTRACT: Definition Currently, the most widely known criteria for diag-nosing anorexia nervosa (AN) are included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disor-ders (DSM-IV) 1 and its European counterpart, In-ternational Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) (Ta-bles 1 and 2). However, the term anorexia can be misleading because AN patients do not always experience loss of appetite. Also, a pronounced appetite loss can be observed in several gastrointestinal, renal or psy-chiatric disorders. It is essential to evaluate the rela-tionship between patient self-perception and weight loss (with or without anxiety). Contrary to AN pa-tients, those with appetite loss secondary to another Abstract Prevalence and incidence of anorexia nervosa are both increasing. A younger age of onset is currently being observed, making this disease an important issue for general practice in pediatrics. Treatment must include a multidisciplinary team. Family participation in rehabilitation is currently encouraged. Detection of hospitalization criteria is the first task to accomplish during clinical evaluation. Once treatment is estab-lished, occurrence of refeeding syndrome consisting of life-threatening disorders of water and electrolyte metabolism (cardiac arrhythmias) must be ruled out. Oral route is the first choice for refeeding. Continuous tube feeding, when required, may be diurnal and/or nocturnal. Gastrointestinal disorders associated with anorexia nervosa may require drug therapy. Diagnosis and hospitalization criteria are discussed in this review as well as medical and dietary treatment options in hospitalized and ambulatory settings.
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ABSTRACT: Despite their high prevalence, associated morbidity and mortality, and available treatment options, eating disorders (EDs) continue to be underdiagnosed by pediatric professionals. Many adolescents go untreated, do not recover, or reach only partial recovery. Higher rates of EDs are seen now in younger children, boys, and minority groups; EDs are increasingly recognized in patients with previous histories of obesity. Medical complications are common in both full and subthreshold EDs and affect every organ system. No single cause of EDs has emerged, although neurobiological and genetic predispositions are emerging as important. Recent treatment paradigms acknowledge that they are not caused by families or chosen by patients. EDs present differently in pediatric populations, and providers should have a high index of suspicion using new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition diagnostic criteria because early intervention can affect prognosis. Outpatient family-based treatment focused on weight restoration, reducing blame, and empowering caregivers has emerged as particularly effective; cognitive behavioral therapy, individual therapy, and higher levels of care may also be appropriate. Pharmacotherapy is useful in specific contexts. Full weight restoration is critical, often involves high-calorie diets, and must allow for continued growth and development; weight maintenance is typically inappropriate in pediatric populations. Physical, nutritional, behavioral, and psychological health are all metrics of a full recovery, and pediatric EDs have a good prognosis with appropriate care. ED prevention efforts should work toward aligning with families and understanding the impact of antiobesity efforts. Primary care providers can be key players in treatment success.Pediatrics 08/2014; · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder in which a distorted self-perception of body image and an excessive fear of gaining weight result in extreme restrictions in eating habits. AN may be divided into two types: a "binge-eating/purging type" during which the individual regularly engages in overeating and then purging behavior, and a "restricting type", in which she does not. AN is a serious medical problem in young people in Western societies. It is widely reported that patients with AN exhibit an enhanced mortality rate as compared with age-matched healthy subjects, which has been mainly ascribed to cardiac complications. At least one-third of all deaths in patients with anorexia nervosa are estimated to be due to cardiac causes, mainly sudden death. Cardiovascular complications of AN can be present in up to 80 % of cases, and among them alterations in cardiac electrical activity, structure and hemodynamics have been reported as causes of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this brief review is to summarize current knowledge on the main cardiovascular complications of AN, their underlying mechanisms and the possible therapeutic approaches.Internal and Emergency Medicine 07/2014; · 2.41 Impact Factor