Evaluation of efficacy and safety of a herbal medicine used for the treatment of malaria.
ABSTRACT Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine has been reported in several countries. Other anti-malarial drugs in use are expensive and not readily accessible to most people in malaria endemic countries. This has led to renewed interest in the development of herbal medicines that have the potential to treat malaria with little or no side effects. This study obtained a preliminary information on the safety and effectiveness of a plant decoction (AM-1), used in treating malaria. The AM-1 is formulated from Jatropha curcas, Gossypium hirsutum, Physalis angulata and Delonix regia. Patients with suspected malaria attending a herbal clinic were enrolled in the study on voluntary basis. They were hospitalized for treatment, clinical observation, biochemical and haematological monitoring, and parasite clearance while on AM-1. In addition male and female Sprague Dawley rats were used to evaluate the acute and subchronic toxicity effects of AM-1. The AM-1 eliminated malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malarie) from the peripheral blood of patients with malaria. In addition the AM-1 did not show any undesired effects in the patients as well as in laboratory rats. The AM-1, however, showed differential effect on the activities of selected cytochrome P450 isozymes (7-pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylation, 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation and p-nitrophenol hydroxylase) in relation to sex of the laboratory rats. These results indicate that AM-1 could be used to treat malaria. However, it could precipitate interactions with other drugs via their biotransformation and elimination. The obtained data warrant further studies in a large number of malaria subjects with monitoring for possible drug interactions.
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ABSTRACT: Physalis angulata L., an annual herb from the Solanaceae family, is widely used in popular medicine in tropical countries to treat a variety of diseases. Two products, (X) and (Y), were isolated from a crude CH2Cl2 extract of dried Congolese Physalis angulata L. plants and crystallized from acetone for structure elucidation. Compound (X) corresponds to a physalin B dimer acetone solvate hydrate (2C28H30O9·C3H6O·0.22H2O), while compound (Y) crystallizes as a mixed crystal containing two physalin B molecules which overlap with 5β,6β-epoxyphysalin B, also known as physalin F, and one acetone molecule in the asymmetric unit (1.332C28H30O9·0.668C28H30O10·C3H6O). Antiplasmodial activity, cytotoxic activity and selectivity indices were determined for crude extracts and the two isolated products (X) and (Y).Acta Crystallographica Section C Crystal Structure Communications 12/2013; 69(Pt 12):1557-62. · 0.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Concerned with the negative impacts of user fees on healthcare access and utilisation, following the enactment of a law in 2003, the Ghanaian government replaced the 'cash-and-carry' system with a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). Even though many Ghanaians rely on traditional medicine (TRM) for reasons of culture, cost and personal preference, the incipient NHIS does not cover the services of TRM practitioners. Consultations with health policy-makers suggest that, in as much as the government recognises the invaluable contributions of TRM practitioners and would like to incorporate them in the incipient scheme, the provision of TRM in the country is still too disorganised, with few if any formal protocols and codes of conduct. Consequently, the inclusion of TRM practitioners in the NHIS is premature. This scholarly review seeks to bring TRM and its practitioners into the mainstream of healthcare provision in Ghana. Possibilities for medical pluralism in Ghana will be discussed with reference to best practices in countries such as China, India and Vietnam. This paper promotes medical pluralism in the form of Active Collaboration Between Fully Recognised Health Systems where there will be equity, mutual respect and understanding among traditional healers and physicians.Global Public Health 01/2013; · 0.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In Ghana anti-malaria herbal medicines or products are used to compliment commercial drugs in treatment and prevention of Plasmodium falciparum infections. In this study, four common aqueous based anti-malaria herbal products (coded HEB, KFE, MDM and NIB) which are used by Ghanaian population from pharmacy/herbal stores in the Madina area, Accra were blindly and randomly sampled for cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and Lead (Pb) analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry technique. Arsenic concentrations were 1.087μg/mL (108.7%), 1.027μg/mL (102.7%), 0.330μg/mL (33.0%) and 0.274μg/mL (27.4%) in MDM, KFE, NIB and HEB respectively. Arsenic concentration determined in MDM and KFE were above the maximum permissible limit of 1.0ppm determined by WHO/FAO. Cadmium concentration in each of the four products was below the detection limit (<0.002mg/mL). Lead concentration in KFE, NIB, and HEB were also below the detection limit (<0.005mg/mL). The maximum permissible limits for Pb and Cd determined by WHO/FAO are 10.0ppm and 0.3ppm respectively. Thus, random assessment on the safety of some ready-to-use aqueous based anti-malaria herbal products on the market is necessary to prevent public health hazards associated with consuming these plant extracts. Although lead concentration in the anti-malaria herbal products were below the maximum concentration limits, their cumulative effect on the health of individuals which consume about four/five bottles for effective malaria parasite clearance cannot be ignored.Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 02/2013; · 2.99 Impact Factor