The current study was designed to evaluate the utility of antidiabetic medications in affecting changes in physical and cognitive functioning among older Mexican Americans with diabetes over a 2-year period.
A longitudinal analysis with repeated measurements between 1999 and 2001 was performed in a cohort of Mexican Americans, 60 or older, in the SALSA Project. Statistical analysis was conducted using a generalized estimating equation.
For subjects with diagnosed diabetes </= 5 years (N = 381), there was less decline in physical and cognitive functioning over 2 years among subjects on treatment, compared to those without treatment. For subjects with diagnosed diabetes of 5+ years (N = 337), the effect of antidiabetic medications was more significant in preventing the decline in physical and cognitive functioning (ADL: mean in log scale = -0.10, 95% CI = -0.16, -0.04, 3MS: mean = 6.35, 95% CI = 3.23, 9.48). Combination therapy of antidiabetic agents appeared to be more effective than monotherapy in preventing the decline in physical and cognitive functioning for subjects.
Antidiabetic drugs appear to be useful in alleviating the decline in physical and cognitive functioning among older Mexican Americans with diabetes, especially for those with a longer duration of the disease.
"To minimize diabetes-related declines in cognitive functioning, older adults with diabetes should monitor their diabetes and adhere to treatment regimens . It has been suggested that, in comparison with people with diabetes who do not adhere to their treatment regimen, cognitive decline is less in people adhering to either a monotherapy (use of sulfonylurea, metformin, or thiazolidinedione) or combination (sulfonylurea with another glucose-lowering agent, insulin, or metformin and insulin) [2,43], but other research does not support this finding with people who are using short-term glycemic control. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For older adults without diabetes, cognitive functioning has been implicated as a predictor of death and functional disability for older adults and those with mild to severe cognitive impairment. However, little is known about the relationship between cognition functioning on mortality and the development of functional disability in late life for persons with diabetes. We examined the relative contribution of cognitive functioning to mortality and functional disability over a 2-year period in a sample of nationally representative older US adults with diabetes who were free from cognitive impairment through secondary data analyses of the Second Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA II).
Participants included 559 US adults (232 males and 327 females) >or= 70 years old who had diabetes and who were free from cognitive impairment were examined using an adapted Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status (TICS), Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL).
Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to investigate the independent contribution of cognitive functioning to three mutually exclusive outcomes of death and two measures of functional disability status. The covariates included in the model were participants' sex, age, race, marital status, educational level, duration of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) status, and self-rated health. Persons with diabetes who had the lowest levels of cognitive functioning relative to the highest level of cognitive functioning had a greater odds of dying (AOR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.67-0.96) or becoming disabled (AOR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.78-0.97) compared to those people who were disability free.
Older adults with diabetes and low normal levels of cognition, yet within normal ranges, were approximately 20% more likely to die and 13% more likely to become disabled than those with higher levels of cognitive functioning over a 2-year period. Brief screening measures of cognitive functioning could be used to identify older adults with diabetes who are at increased risk for mortality and functional disability, as well as those who may benefit from interventions to prevent or minimize further disablement and declines in cognitive functioning.
"Another study showed that in patients with a duration of diagnosed diabetes of less than 5 years, there was a 2 point decline over 2 years on the MMSE in untreated patients compared to treated patients. In patients with a duration of diagnosed diabetes of 5 years or more, untreated diabetes was associated with a 6 point decrease on the MMSE . These studies, together with some studies on early diabetes , suggest that better glycemic control improves cognition and that there is a cognitive benefit to restricting hyperglycemic episodes in Type 2 diabetes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is becoming increasingly common in most Westernized countries and it now occurs at a younger age. There are pathologies associated with diabetes, mostly systemic ones. However, a growing number of studies is also showing that diabetes is associated with impaired cognitive processes in older adults and hasten the progression to dementia. The most common cognitive deficits are decreases in processing speed and verbal memory; these may extend to other aspects of cognition with increasing age. The link between diabetes and cognitive decline is obscured by depression, hypertension, as well as cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases, all of which occur to varying degrees in diabetic patients. A few studies indicate that controlling blood glucose with anti-diabetic treatments may help prevent the cognitive decline in diabetic patients before they are 70 years old. After that age, diabetes appears to produce faster cognitive decline and may increase the occurrence of pathological changes associated with vascular dementia or Alzheimer's disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the association of type 2 diabetes with baseline cognitive function and cognitive decline over two years of follow up, focusing on women living in the community and on the effects of treatments for diabetes.
Nurses' health study in the United States. Two cognitive interviews were carried out by telephone during 1995-2003.
18 999 women aged 70-81 years who had been registered nurses completed the baseline interview; to date, 16 596 participants have completed follow up interviews after two years.
Cognitive assessments included telephone interview of cognitive status, immediate and delayed recalls of the East Boston memory test, test of verbal fluency, delayed recall of 10 word list, and digit span backwards. Global scores were calculated by averaging the results of all tests with z scores.
After multivariate adjustment, women with type 2 diabetes performed worse on all cognitive tests than women without diabetes at baseline. For example, women with diabetes were at 25-35% increased odds of poor baseline score (defined as bottom 10% of the distribution) compared with women without diabetes on the telephone interview of cognitive status and the global composite score (odds ratios 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.57, and 1.26, 1.06 to 1.51, respectively). Odds of poor cognition were particularly high for women who had had diabetes for a long time (1.52, 1.15 to 1.99, and 1.49, 1.11 to 2.00, respectively, for > or = 15 years' duration). In contrast, women with diabetes who were on oral hypoglycaemic agents performed similarly to women without diabetes (1.06 and 0.99), while women not using any medication had the greatest odds of poor performance (1.71, 1.28 to 2.281, and 1.45, 1.04 to 2.02) compared with women without diabetes. There was also a modest increase in odds of poor cognition among women using insulin treatment. All findings were similar when cognitive decline was examined over time.
Women with type 2 diabetes had increased odds of poor cognitive function and substantial cognitive decline. Use of oral hypoglycaemic therapy, however, may ameliorate risk.
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