Extravasation: a dreaded complication of chemotherapy.

Department of Medical Oncology, AZ Middelheim, Antwerp, Belgium.
Annals of Oncology (Impact Factor: 7.38). 02/2003; 14 Suppl 3:iii26-30. DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdg744
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Accidental extravasation of anthracycline-containing anticancer chemotherapy is a feared complication that may lead to progressive tissue damage. The condition may require extensive surgical intervention and often has severe long-term effects. Until a short while ago, there has been no effective treatment against the devastating effect of extravasated anthracycline. However, dexrazoxane has proven highly effective in preventing necrosis in both preclinical and clinical studies and is now approved in Europe (Savene), and has orphan drug status in the USA (Totect) for this indication. Hence, it is the first and only proven effective antidote against anthracycline extravasation injuries.
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    ABSTRACT: A 75-year-old man diagnosed with lower esophageal adenocarcinoma suffered from epirubicin extravasation during the second cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with epirubicin and oxaliplatin. A full recovery was achieved after treatment with dexrazoxane (Cardioxane® ). This is the first time in our hospital that extravasation of an anthracycline has been treated with dexrazoxane. We used Cardioxane® , approved for the prevention of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity, while Savene® is indicated for the treatment of anthracycline extravasation. The treatment was effective, and the selection of Cardioxane® (seven-fold cheaper than Savene® ) yielded a cost saving. Consequently, Cardioxane® has been included in our guidelines for anthracycline extravasation.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This study aimed to compare the efficacy of topical dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), intralesional and systemic carnitine as monotherapy and in combination against ulceration in rats induced by intradermal doxorubicin extravasation. Sixty-nine 3-month-old male Wistar albino rats, weighing between 200-225 g, were used in this study. Rats were applied monotherapy or a combination of topical DMSO, intraperitoneal or intralesional carnitine. Control groups received saline or no drug. The necrotic area was measured and extravasated neutrophil leukocytes were counted in healthy tissue adjacent to necrotic areas. Monotherapy with topical and systemic carnitine did not significantly reduce the size of necrotic areas. However, topical DMSO had reduced necrotic areas and inflammatory cells significantly and the addition of systemic carnitine to topical DMSO had increased the efficacy. DMSO is an effective, safe, and easy-to-apply treatment for doxorubicin-induced extravasation. Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate the use of carnitine in combination with DMSO.
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