Ethnic differences in use of antipsychotic medication among Texas medicaid clients with schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Culture and ethnicity have been suggested to influence the presentation of patients with schizophrenia. These factors are thought to affect the diagnoses, courses of treatment, and medical utilization patterns of patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, the differences between whites, African Americans, and Mexican Americans are of particular importance, as these groups comprise the majority of the population in the United States today. The traditional course of treatment for many patients with schizophrenia is the drug haloperidol. However, research has shown that some ethnic groups (African Americans and Mexican Americans) may respond better to atypical drugs, such as olanzapine, but may be less likely to receive these drugs. A better response to the course of treatment results in improved medical utilization patterns. The purpose of this study was to examine if ethnicity helped predict whether Texas Medicaid patients were prescribed haloperidol versus olanzapine when other factors were controlled for.
The study population consisted of 726 patients whose index drug was haloperidol and 1875 patients whose index drug was olanzapine. Patients had an ICD-9-CM diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Texas medical and prescription claims data were used in a logistic regression analysis to determine significant predictors of the type of antipsychotic (haloperidol vs. olanzapine) patients were prescribed. Variables included in the analysis were ethnicity, gender, age, region, other mental illness comorbidities, and previous utilization of medications and resources. Data were collected from Jan. 1, 1996, to Aug. 31, 1998.
The results show that when other demographic and utilization factors were controlled for, African Americans were less likely than whites to receive olanzapine rather than haloperidol.
Ethnicity is a significant predictor of the type of antipsychotic that is prescribed.
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ABSTRACT: Background:In patients treated at Veterans Affairs facilities, demographicand clinical characteristics have been found to influence the choice of atypical antipsychotic drugs. However, little is known about the influences on the choice between olanzapine and risperidone in patients with schizophrenia enrolled in Medicaid.Current Therapeutic Research 09/2005; 66(5):463-474. DOI:10.1016/j.curtheres.2005.10.004 · 0.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the effect of race-ethnicity and geography on the adoption of a pharmacological innovation (long-acting injectable risperidone [LAIR]) among Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia as well as the contribution of geographic location to observed racial-ethnic disparities. METHODS The data source was a claims data set from the Florida Medicaid program for the 2.5-year period that followed the launch of LAIR in the U.S. market. Study participants were beneficiaries with schizophrenia who had filled at least one antipsychotic prescription during the study period. The outcome variable was any use of LAIR; model variables were need indicators and random effects for 11 Medicaid areas, which are multicounty units used by the Medicaid program to administer benefits. Adjusted probability of use of LAIR for blacks and Latinos versus whites was estimated with logistic regression models. RESULTS The study cohort included 13,992 Medicaid beneficiaries: 25% of the cohort was black, 37% Latino, and 38% white. Unadjusted probability of LAIR use was lower for Latinos than whites, and use varied across the state's geographic areas. Adjustment for need confirmed the unadjusted finding of a disparity between Latinos and whites (odds ratio=.58, 95% confidence interval=.49-.70). The inclusion of geographic location in the model eliminated the Latino-white disparity but confirmed the unadjusted finding of geographic variation in adoption. CONCLUSIONS Within a state Medicaid program, the initial finding of a disparity between Latinos and whites in adopting LAIR was driven by geographic disparities in adoption rates and the geographic concentration of Latinos in a low-adoption area. Possible contributors and implications of these results are discussed.Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 10/2012; 63(12). DOI:10.1176/appi.ps.201100408 · 2.81 Impact Factor