Oxygen activation by nonheme iron(II) complexes: alpha-keto carboxylate versus carboxylate
ABSTRACT Mononuclear iron(II) alpha-keto carboxylate and carboxylate compounds of the sterically hindered tridentate face-capping ligand Tp(Ph2) (Tp(Ph2) = hydrotris(3,5-diphenylpyrazol-1-yl)borate) were prepared as models for the active sites of nonheme iron oxygenases. The structures of an aliphatic alpha-keto carboxylate complex, [Fe(II)(Tp(Ph2))(O(2)CC(O)CH(3))], and the carboxylate complexes [Fe(II)(Tp(Ph2))(OBz)] and [Fe(II)(Tp(Ph2))(OAc)(3,5-Ph(2)pzH)] were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, all of which have five-coordinate iron centers. Both the alpha-keto carboxylate and the carboxylate compounds react with dioxygen resulting in the hydroxylation of a single ortho phenyl position of the Tp(Ph2) ligand. The oxygenation products were characterized spectroscopically, and the structure of the octahedral iron(III) phenolate product [Fe(III)(Tp(Ph2))(OAc)(3,5-Ph(2)pzH)] was established by X-ray diffraction. The reaction of the alpha-keto carboxylate model compounds with oxygen to produce the phenolate product occurs with concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of the alpha-keto acid. Isotope labeling studies show that (18)O(2) ends up in the Tp(Ph2) phenolate oxygen and the carboxylate derived from the alpha-keto acid. The isotope incorporation mirrors the dioxygenase nature of the enzymatic systems. Parallel studies on the carboxylate complexes demonstrate that the oxygen in the hydroxylated ligand is also derived from molecular oxygen. The oxygenation of the benzoylformate complex is demonstrated to be first order in metal complex and dioxygen, with activation parameters DeltaH++ = 25 +/- 2 kJ mol(-1) and DeltaS++ = -179 +/- 6 J mol(-1) K(-1). The rate of appearance of the iron(III) phenolate product is sensitive to the nature of the substituent on the benzoylformate ligand, exhibiting a Hammett rho value of +1.3 indicative of a nucleophilic mechanism. The proposed reaction mechanism involves dioxygen binding to produce an iron(III) superoxide species, nucleophilic attack of the superoxide at the alpha-keto functionality, and oxidative decarboxylation of the adduct to afford the oxidizing species that attacks the Tp(Ph2) phenyl ring. Interestingly, the alpha-keto carboxylate complexes react 2 orders of magnitude faster than the carboxylate complexes, thus emphasizing the key role that the alpha-keto functionality plays in oxygen activation by alpha-keto acid-dependent iron enzymes.
SourceAvailable from: Sumit Sahu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The synthesis of a pentadentate ligand with strategically designed fluorinated arene groups in the second coordination sphere of a nonheme iron center is reported. The oxidatively resistant fluorine substituents allow for the trapping and characterization of an Fe(IV)(O) complex at -20 °C. Upon warming of the Fe(IV)(O) complex, an unprecedented arene C-F hydroxylation reaction occurs. Computational studies support the finding that substrate orientation is a critical factor in the observed reactivity. This work not only gives rare direct evidence for the participation of an Fe(IV)(O) species in arene hydroxylation but also provides the first example of a high-valent iron-oxo complex that mediates aromatic C-F hydroxylation.Journal of the American Chemical Society 09/2014; 136(39). DOI:10.1021/ja507346t · 11.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several monoiron(II) complexes containing tris(imidazolyl)phosphane (TIP) ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized by using X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. Two TIP ligands were employed: tris(2-phenylimidazol-4-yl)phosphane (4-TIPPh) and tris(4,5-diphenyl-1-methylimidazol-2-yl)phosphane (2-TIPPh2). These tridentate ligands resemble the 3-histidine (3His) facial triad found recently in the active sites of certain nonheme iron dioxygenases. Three of the reported complexes are designed to serve as convenient precursors to species that model the enzyme–substrate intermediates of 3His dioxygenases; thus, each contains an [Fe(κ3-TIP)]2+ unit in which the remaining coordination sites are occupied by easily displaced ligands, such as solvent molecules and/or carboxylate groups. The viability of these complexes as precursors was demonstrated through the synthesis of TIP-based complexes with β-diketonate and salicylate ligands that represent faithful models of β-diketone dioxygenase and salicylate 1,2-dioxygenase, respectively.Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 04/2012; 2012(11). DOI:10.1002/ejic.201101282