Psychiatric and substance dependence comorbidities, sexually transmitted diseases, and risk behaviors among methamphetamine-dependent gay and bisexual men seeking outpatient drug abuse treatment.
ABSTRACT This article describes psychiatric and substance dependence comorbidities, lifetime rates of infectious disease, and reported high-risk sexual behaviors for methamphetamine-dependent, gay and bisexual men at entry to outpatient drug abuse treatment in Los Angeles. Participants' self-reports of high-risk sexual and drug use behaviors and of history of infectious disease status were correlated with diagnostic information from 155 Structured Clinical Interviews for the DSM-IV (SCID). A total of 82 participants met criteria for lifetime depressive disorders; 44 participants met criteria for lifetime anxiety disorders. Compared to those without psychiatric diagnoses, significant differences were observed in lifetime prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among those who have generalized anxiety disorder (higher rates of genital gonorrhea), specific phobia and major depressive disorder (higher rates of oral gonorrhea), social phobia (higher rates of syphilis) and bipolar disorder, type I (higher rates of HIV). Differences in infectious disease prevalence did not correspond to significantly different rates of high-risk sexual behaviors. Findings indicate that gay and bisexual men seeking outpatient treatment for methamphetamine dependence are likely to experience psychiatric comorbidity and to have high rates of infectious disease, including HIV, syphilis and gonorrhea.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the risk of lifetime and current methamphetamine-induced psychosis in patients with methamphetamine dependence. The association between psychiatric co-morbidity and methamphetamine-induced psychosis was also studied. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted concurrently at a teaching hospital and a drug rehabilitation center in Malaysia. Patients with the diagnosis of methamphetamine based on DSM-IV were interviewed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) for methamphetamine-induced psychosis and other Axis I psychiatric disorders. The information on sociodemographic background and drug use history was obtained from interview or medical records. RESULTS: Of 292 subjects, 47.9% of the subjects had a past history of psychotic symptoms and 13.0% of the patients were having current psychotic symptoms. Co-morbid major depressive disorder (OR=7.18, 95 CI=2.612-19.708), bipolar disorder (OR=13.807, 95 CI=5.194-36.706), antisocial personality disorder (OR=12.619, 95 CI=6.702-23.759) and heavy methamphetamine uses were significantly associated with lifetime methamphetamine-induced psychosis after adjusted for other factors. Major depressive disorder (OR=2.870, CI=1.154-7.142) and antisocial personality disorder (OR=3.299, 95 CI=1.375-7.914) were the only factors associated with current psychosis. CONCLUSION: There was a high risk of psychosis in patients with methamphetamine dependence. It was associated with co-morbid affective disorder, antisocial personality, and heavy methamphetamine use. It is recommended that all cases of methamphetamine dependence should be screened for psychotic symptoms.Comprehensive psychiatry 02/2013; · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a significant public health concern. Numerous internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders have been found to be related to STD risk. However, to date, no studies have examined several psychiatric disorders simultaneously to account for STD risk. Given that psychiatric disorders often co-occur and can be explained by a limited number of latent dimensions of psychopathology, it is important to examine whether the relationship between STDs and psychiatric disorders is best explained by broad dimensions of psychopathology. Methods The current study examined the associations between a range of Axis I and II psychiatric disorders at baseline and rates of STDs at a three-year follow up in a large, nationally representative sample of adults in the United States (n = 34,434). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to fit three factors, two internalizing and one externalizing. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the relationships between and among the factors and STD status and to test for mediation. Results In bivariate analyses, most Axis I and II disorders were associated with STD diagnosis at Wave 2, whereas the results of the structural model showed that only the externalizing factor was significantly associated with STD diagnosis at Wave 2. Further, the externalizing factor mediated the relationship between one of the internalizing factors and STD diagnosis. Conclusion Findings suggest the unique contribution of externalizing psychopathology to STD risk and the importance of examining latent dimensions of disorders when understanding this relationship between psychiatric disorders and STDs.Journal of psychosomatic research 01/2014; · 2.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine dependence may be associated with a range of psychiatric disorders. However, relatively few studies have systematically examined these disorders and possible risk factors. This study used a structured diagnostic interview to assess the prevalence and pattern of co-morbid psychiatric disorders in individuals with methamphetamine dependence; and identified risk factors for this comorbidity. One hundred adult volunteers with a diagnosis of methamphetamine dependence and without co-morbid medical disorders were consecutively recruited from three drug rehabilitation centres. Each volunteer was assessed with a socio-demographic questionnaire and evaluated for psychiatric comorbidity using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). A regression model was used to determine predictors of psychiatric comorbidity. Co-morbid psychiatric disorders were present in 36.0 % of the sample; these included mood disorders (16.0 %), psychotic disorders (13.0 %) and anxiety disorders (7.0 %). One in four of these disorders were assessed as being substance-induced. Independent predictors of psychiatric comorbidity included being male (OR = 10.04, 95 % C.I = 2.07-48.63, p = 0.004), younger (OR = 0.87, 95 % C.I = 0.77-0.99, p = 0.04), and having a previous psychiatric disorder (OR = 18.45, 95 % C.I = 3.81-89.33, p < 0.001). Mood, psychotic, and anxiety disorders are common in individuals with methamphetamine dependence. Risk factors for such comorbidity can be identified. These findings underscore the need for an integrated model of care addressing both substance use disorders and psychiatric comorbidity.Metabolic Brain Disease 02/2014; · 2.33 Impact Factor