Effects of dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and vitamin E on the immune response of healthy geriatric dogs.
ABSTRACT To determine the effect of dietary n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratios and alpha-tocopheryl acetate concentration on immune functions andT cell subpopulations in healthy dogs.
Thirty-two 7- to 10-year old female Beagles.
For 17 weeks, dogs were fed food that contained low (1.4:1) or high (40:1) ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in combination with 3 concentrations of all rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (low, 17 mg/kg of food; medium, 101 mg/kg; high, 447 mg/kg). Dogs were inoculated twice with a keyhole limpet hemocyanin suspension at 13 and 15 weeks.
After 12 weeks, dogs consuming low concentrations of alpha-tocopheryl acetate had lower percentages of CD8+ T cells, compared with dogs consuming medium or high alpha-tocopheryl acetate concentrations. Also, dogs consuming low alpha-tocopheryl acetate concentrations had higher CD4+ to CD8+ T cell ratios. On day 4 of week 15, the percentage of CD8+ T cells was highest in dogs fed medium concentrations of alpha-tocopheryl acetate, compared with other dogs; however, the CD4+ to CD8+ T cell ratio was higher only in dogs fed low concentrations of alpha-tocopheryl acetate with high concentrations of n-3 fatty acids. Dogs consuming low concentrations of n-3 fatty acids with medium concentrations of alpha-tocopheryl acetate had the largest delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test response.
An optimum amount of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate concentration, regardless of the dietary n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio, stimulates the CD8+ T cell population. Effects of an optimum amount of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate concentration on the DTH response are blunted by dietary n-3 fatty acids.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the absence of eicosapentaenoic acid, on human immune response (IR). A 120-d study with 11 healthy men was conducted at the Metabolic Research Unit of the Western Human Nutrition Research Center. Four subjects (control group) were fed the stabilization or basal diet (15, 30, and 55% energy from protein, fat, and carbohydrate, respectively) throughout the study; the remaining seven subjects (DHA group) were fed the basal diet for the first 30 d, followed by 6 g DHA/d for the next 90 d. DHA replaced an equivalent amount of linoleic acid; the two diets were comparable in their total fat and all other nutrients. Both diets were supplemented with 20 mg d-alpha-tocopherol acetate per day. Indices of IR were examined on study day 22, 30, 78, 85, 106, and 113. Addition of DHA at moderately high levels did not alter the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured with phytohemagglutinin or concanavalin A, or the delayed hypersensitivity skin response. Also, additional DHA did not alter the number of T cells producing interleukin 2 (IL2), the ratio between the helper/suppressor T cells in circulation, or the serum concentrations of immunoglobulin G, C3, and interleukin 2 receptor (IL2R). DHA supplementation, however, caused a significant (P = 0.0001) decrease in the number of circulating white blood cells which was mainly due to a decrease in the number of circulating granulocytes. The number of lymphocytes in peripheral circulation was not affected by Dietary DHA enrichment, but the percentage of lymphocytes in white blood cells increased because of a reduction in granulocyte numbers. None of these indices was changed in the control group. Our results show that when total fat intake is low and held constant, DHA consumption does not inhibit many of the lymphocyte functions which have been reported to be inhibited by fish oil consumption.Lipids 07/1998; 33(6):559-66. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We studied the effects of feeding experimental diets containing (n-6) to (n-3) fatty acid ratios of 31:1, 5.4:1, and 1.4:1 to 20 healthy female geriatric Beagles (9.5-11.5 y) for 8-12 wk on various indices of the immune response. Compared with the 31:1 diet, consumption of the 5.4:1 and 1.4:1 diets significantly increased (n-3) fatty acids in plasma (2.17 +/- 0.64, 9.05 +/- 0.64, 17.46 +/- 0.64 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively, P < 0.0001). Although supplementation with (n-3) fatty acids did not significantly alter the humoral immune response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), it significantly suppressed the cell-mediated immune response based on results of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test. The DTH response after intradermal injection of KLH at 24 h was significantly lower in the group consuming the 1.4:1 diet compared with the group consuming the 5.4:1 (P = 0.02) or the 31:1 diets (P = 0.04), and remained significantly suppressed at 48 h in the group fed 1.4:1 relative to the group fed 31:1. After consumption of the 1.4:1 diet, stimulated mononuclear cells produced 52% less prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) than those from dogs fed the 31:1 diet (224 +/- 74 and 451 +/- 71 pmol/L, respectively, P = 0.04). Plasma concentration of alpha-tocopherol was 20% lower in dogs fed the 1.4:1 diet compared with those fed the 31:1 diet (P = 0.04), and lipid peroxidation was greater in both plasma (P = 0.03) and urine (P = 0.002). These data suggest that although a ratio of dietary (n-6) to (n-3) fatty acids of 1.4:1 depresses the cell-mediated immune response and PGE2 production, it increases lipid peroxidation and lowers vitamin E concentration.Journal of Nutrition 07/1997; 127(6):1198-205. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) is defined as the recruitment of T cells into tissues to be activated by antigen-presenting cells to produce cytokines that mediate local inflammation. CD8+ T cells are now known to mediate DTH responses in allergic contact dermatitis, drug eruptions, asthma, and autoimmune diseases. This inflammatory effector capability of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells was previously poorly recognized, but there is now considerable evidence that these diseases may be mediated by CD8+ DTH. The difference between CD8+ T cells and CD4+ T cells mediating DTH relates to the molecular mechanisms by which antigens are processed and presented to the T cells. Antigens external to the cell are phagocytosed and processed for presentation on MHC class II molecules (eg, HLA-DR) to CD4+ T cells. In contrast, internal cytoplasmic antigens are processed by the endogenous pathway for presentation on MHC class I molecules (eg, HLA-A, -B, and -C) to CD8+ T cells. External allergens can also enter the endogenous pathway to be presented to CD8+ T cells. These include many contact sensitizers, chemical and protein respiratory allergens, viral antigens, metabolic products of drugs, and autoantigens. The resulting CD8+ T-cell response explains the role of CD8+ T-cell DTH mechanisms in allergic contact dermatitis, asthma, drug eruptions, and autoimmune diseases.Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 03/1999; 103(2 Pt 1):192-9. · 12.05 Impact Factor