Comparison of insulin aspart and lispro: pharmacokinetic and metabolic effects.
ABSTRACT To compare insulin levels and actions in patients with type 1 diabetes after subcutaneous injection of the rapid-acting insulin analogs aspart and lispro.
Seven C-peptide-negative patients with type 1 diabetes (two men and five women) were studied at the General Clinical Research Center at Temple University Hospital two times, 1 month apart. Their plasma glucose was normalized overnight by intravenous infusion of insulin. The next morning, they received subcutaneous injections of either aspart or lispro (9.4 +/- 1.9 U) in random order. For the next 4-5 h, their plasma glucose was clamped at approximately 5.5 mmol/l with a variable infusion of 20% glucose. The study was terminated after 8 h.
Both insulin analogs produced similar serum insulin levels (250-300 pmol/l) at approximately 30 min and disappeared from serum after approximately 4 h. Insulin aspart and lispro had similar effects on glucose and fat metabolism. Effects on carbohydrate metabolism (glucose uptake, glucose oxidation, and endogenous glucose production) peaked after approximately 2-3 h and disappeared after approximately 5-6 h. Effects on lipid metabolism (plasma free fatty acid, ketone body levels, and free fatty acid oxidation) appeared to peak earlier (at approximately 2 h) and disappeared earlier (after approximately 4 h) than the effects on carbohydrate metabolism.
We conclude that both insulin aspart and lispro are indistinguishable from each other with respect to blood levels and that they are equally effective in correcting abnormalities in carbohydrate and fat metabolism in patients with type 1 diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. While it can occur in all types of diabetes mellitus, it is seen most often in patients with type 1 diabetes, either at presentation or as a result of non-compliance with medical therapy. DKA is characterized by hyperglycemia, acidosis, dehydration, and electrolyte abnormalities, which result from a deficiency of insulin and an excess of counter-regulatory hormones. Therapy is aimed at repleting fluids, and correcting acidosis and electrolyte disturbances by administration of intravenous fluid and intravenous insulin. Rapid correction should be avoided as it may result in untoward effects, including cerebral edema. Frequent monitoring of neurologic status and metabolic parameters aids in avoidance or early detection of complications. While much is still not understood about the most serious complication, cerebral edema, recent studies suggest that its development may be tied to a loss of cerebral autoregulation and a vasogenic mechanism of edema formation. Treatment of cerebral edema includes fluid restriction and administration of mannitol. Once DKA has resolved, subcutaneous insulin is initiated with careful consideration of its pharmacokinetics to avoid a period of insulin deficiency and metabolic decompensation.Paediatric Drugs 02/2008; 10(4):209-15. · 1.79 Impact Factor
Article: Cumulative clinical experience with use of insulin lispro: critical appraisal, role in therapy, and patient considerations.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have now at our disposal the new rapid-acting insulin analogs, of which insulin lispro was the first to become commercially available. While the differences in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics are indisputable, the clinical benefits attained by these changes have not been as clear. In the present review, we discuss the structure, pharmacology, and landmark studies related to insulin lispro. The clinical characteristics of insulin lispro are compared with those of insulin regular and other insulin analogs in different clinical situations. Also included are the aspects of quality of life and cost-effectiveness that may modify the modern practitioner's decision to adopt one type of insulin over another.Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy 01/2012; 5:1-10.
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ABSTRACT: individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are encouraged to consume CHO to prevent hypoglycemia during or after exercise. However, the research comparing specific types of CHO is limited. This study compared the alterations in metabolism and fuel oxidation in response to running after preexercise ingestion of isomaltulose or dextrose in T1DM. after preliminary testing, on two occasions, eight T1DM individuals consumed 75 g of either dextrose (DEX; GI = 96) or isomaltulose (ISO; GI = 32), 2 h before performing 45 min of treadmill running at 80% ± 1% VO(2peak). Blood glucose (BG) was measured for 2 h before and 3 h after exercise. Cardiorespiratory parameters were collected at rest and during exercise. Data (mean ± SEM) were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. there was a smaller increase in BG in the preexercise period under ISO with peak BG occurring at 120 min after ingestion compared with 90 min under DEX (Δ+4.5 ± 0.4 vs Δ+9.1 ± 0.6 mmol·L, P < 0.01). During the final 10 min of exercise, there were lower CHO (ISO 2.85 ± 0.07 vs DEX 3.18 ± 0.08 g·min, P < 0.05) and greater lipid oxidation rates (ISO 0.33 ± 0.03 vs DEX 0.20 ± 0.03 g·min, P < 0.05) under ISO. After exercise, ISO BG was lower than DEX for the entire 180-min period, with BG area under the curve and mean BG concentrations being 21% ± 3% and 3.0 ± 0.4 mmol·L lower, respectively (P < 0.05). consumption of ISO improves BG responses during and after exercise through reduced CHO and improved lipid oxidation during the later stages of exercise.Medicine and science in sports and exercise 02/2011; 43(2):204-10. · 3.71 Impact Factor