Differences in breast shape preferences between plastic surgeons and patients seeking breast augmentation
ABSTRACT There has been little discussion in the published literature regarding breast shape preferences. This study was conducted to ascertain previously undocumented differences in breast shape preferences between plastic surgeons and patients seeking breast augmentation, with respect to upper-pole contour. Sixty-six respondents, grouped into three cohort categories (plastic surgeons, breast augmentation patients, and lay people), were asked to evaluate a series of 12 nonptotic breast profiles representing a range of upper-pole contours. Five profiles exhibited convex upper-pole contours, five exhibited concave contours, and two exhibited upper poles with flat slopes. A five-point Likert-type scale was used to rate attractiveness, naturalness, how close the shape was to each respondent's personal ideal, and how close the shape was to what the respondent believed was our society's ideal. Statistical comparisons were made among the three cohorts. The plastic surgeon cohort (n = 11) rated concave upper-pole contours significantly higher than did the patient cohort (n = 13) for attractiveness, naturalness, and personal ideal (p < 0.01). For convex contours, the plastic surgeon cohort gave significantly lower scores than did the patient cohort (p < 0.01). The lay category (n = 42) demonstrated preferences intermediate between those of the other groups. There are no known studies in the literature documenting the breast shape preferences of plastic surgeons and their patients. This study suggests that plastic surgeons and patients seeking breast augmentation may have drastically different images in mind regarding what constitutes an attractive, natural, and ideal breast shape. These findings have potential implications for patient treatment and satisfaction.
SourceAvailable from: Olivier Branford[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: The authors previously identified key objective parameters that define the aesthetic ideal of the breast in a study of 100 models with natural breasts. In this follow-up article, the opinion of the general public on ideal breast proportions was surveyed. Methods: One thousand three hundred fifteen respondents were asked to rank the attractiveness of images of four women with varying breast sizes. Each of the women's breasts were morphed into four different proportions. One of the key features was the upper pole to lower pole percentage proportion, corresponding to ratios of 3565, 45:55, 50:50, and 55:45. Rankings were analyzed according to population demographics. Effects of age, sex, nationality, and ethnicity Were evaluated. The responses of 53 plastic surgeons were included. Results: Breasts with an upper pole to lower pole ratio of 45:55 were universally scored highest, in particular; by 87 percent of women in their thirties (n = 190), 90 percent of men (n = 655), 94 percent of plastic surgeons (n = 53), 92 percent of North Americans (n = 89), 95 percent of South Americans (n = 23), 86 percent of Europeans (n = 982), 87 percent of Caucasians (n = 1016), and 87 percent of Asians (n = 209). Conclusions: This study reaffirms the authors' previous findings that the 45:55 ratio has universal appeal in defining the ideal breast. The authors propose that this proportion should be used as a basis for design in aesthetic surgery.Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery 09/2014; 134(3):436-447. DOI:10.1097/PRS.0000000000000485 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Breast reduction is well-known to provide an improvement in physical symptoms. However, measurements show that this procedure is less effective in restoring upper-pole fullness. Breast implants effectively augment the upper pole. This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness and safety of this treatment combination. This retrospective study consists of 3 parts: (1) a clinical study, (2) breast measurements, and (3) an outcome study. Eighty consecutive women undergoing breast reduction (n = 56) or breast reduction plus implants (n = 24) were evaluated. All breast implants were inserted submuscularly. All patients were treated with the same vertical reduction technique, using a medially based pedicle and intraoperative nipple positioning. Measurements were compared between preoperative photographs and photographs taken at least 3 months after surgery (n = 51). Patient surveys (n= 56) were evaluated. There was no significant difference in complication or reoperation rates between groups. Both procedures elevated the breast mound and lower-pole level and increased the breast parenchymal ratio (upper-pole area/lower-pole area). Breast implants significantly increased upper-pole projection (P < 0.01). All surveyed patients who had simultaneous implants reported that they were pleased with their decision. Physical symptoms were reduced in both groups. Patient satisfaction was 92.5% for breast reduction and 93.8% for breast reduction plus implants. Both groups reported an improvement in quality of life. Vertical breast reduction with a medial pedicle may be combined safely and effectively with breast implants in patients who desire upper-pole fullness.
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ABSTRACT: There has been little discussion in the plastic surgery literature regarding breast shape preferences among plastic surgeons, despite strong evidence that such aesthetic preferences are influenced by multiple factors. Much effort has been focused on delineating the objective criteria by which an "attractive" breast might be defined. This study aimed at providing a better understanding of the presence and significance of differences in personal aesthetic perception, and how these relate to a plastic surgeon's demographic, ethnic, and cultural background, as well as practice type (academic vs private). An interactive online survey was designed. Modifiable ranges of upper pole fullness and areola size were achieved via digital alteration, enabling participants to interactively change the shape of a model's breasts. The questionnaire was translated into multiple languages and sent to plastic surgeons worldwide. Demographic data were also collected. Analysis of variance was used to elucidate plastic surgeon's breast shape preferences in respect to sex and age, geographic and ethnic background, as well as practice type. The authors gathered 614 responses from 29 different countries. Significant differences regarding preferences for upper pole fullness, areola size in the natural breast, and areola size in the augmented breast were identified across surgeons from the different countries. Further, significant relationships regarding breast shape preferences were distilled between the age and sex of the surgeon, as well as the practice type. No differences were found in respect to the surgeons' self-reported ethnic background. Country of residence, age, and practice type significantly impact breast shape preferences of plastic surgeons. These findings have implications for both patients seeking and surgeons performing cosmetic and reconstructive breast surgery. In an increasingly global environment, cultural differences and international variability must be considered when defining and publishing new techniques and aesthetic outcomes. When both the plastic surgeon and the patient are able to adequately and effectively communicate their preferences regarding the shape and relations of the breast, they will be more successful at achieving satisfying results.Annals of plastic surgery 03/2014; DOI:10.1097/SAP.0000000000000001 · 1.29 Impact Factor