Body Image Concerns of Breast Augmentation Patients

Department of Psychiatry, Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA.
Plastic &amp Reconstructive Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.99). 08/2003; 112(1):83-90. DOI: 10.1097/01.PRS.0000066005.07796.51
Source: PubMed


This study investigated the body image concerns of women who sought cosmetic breast augmentation. Thirty breast augmentation candidates completed several measures of body image before their initial surgical consultation. Thirty physically similar women who were not interested in breast augmentation were recruited from the medical center and university community and also completed the measures. Breast augmentation candidates, as compared with women not seeking augmentation, reported greater dissatisfaction with their breasts. Augmentation candidates rated their ideal breast size, as well as the breast size preferred by women, as significantly larger than did controls. In addition, women interested in breast augmentation reported greater investment in their appearance, greater distress about their appearance in a variety of situations, and more frequent teasing about their appearance. Finally, breast augmentation candidates also reported more frequent use of psychotherapy in the year before the operation as compared with women not seeking augmentation. These results replicate and extend previous studies of body image in cosmetic surgery patients.

1 Follower
9 Reads
  • Source
    • "In addition, among women, a higher body mass index (BMI) has been reliably associated with more positive attitudes to, and consideration of, cosmetic surgery (Markey & Markey, 2009; Swami, 2009). Other work has focused on individual psychological differences and has shown that attitudes to cosmetic surgery are associated with such factors as negative body image (e.g., Henderson-King & Henderson-King, 2005; Markey & Markey, 2009; Swami, 2009), higher investment in appearance (Delinsky, 2005; Sarwer et al., 2003a), greater internalization of media messages about appearance (Henderson-King & Brooks, 2009; Swami, 2009), stronger materialist values (Henderson- King & Brooks, 2009), and greater celebrity worship (Swami, Taylor, & Carvalho, 2009c). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous work has suggested that ethnic minority women have more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery than British Whites, but reasons for this are not fully understood. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study asked 250 British Asian and 250 African Caribbean university students to complete measures of attitudes to cosmetic surgery, cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, ethnic identity salience, self-esteem, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that there were significant between-group differences only on cultural mistrust and self-esteem, although effect sizes were small (d values = .21-.37). Further analyses showed that more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery were associated with greater cultural mistrust, stronger adherence to traditional values, and stronger ethnic identity salience, although these relationships were weaker for African Caribbean women than for British Asians. These results are discussed in relation to perceptions of cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority women.
    International Journal of Psychology 03/2012; 48(3). DOI:10.1080/00207594.2011.645480 · 1.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In addition to the significant depletion of women's economic resources (Hesse-Biber et al. 2006; Tiggemann and Rothblum 1997), this high percentage of women undergoing cosmetic surgery is particularly troubling because of the numerous deleterious consequences associated with these procedures, which are well-known among cosmetic surgeons but virtually unknown among the general population, such as chronic pain, deadly infections, gangrene, nerve damage, loss of sensation, mutilated body parts, amputation, reoperation, cancer detection difficulty, suicide, and death (Haiken 1997; Jeffreys 2005; McLaughlin et al. 2004; Wolf 1991; Zones 2000). Researchers have linked a variety of interpersonal and intrapersonal variables to people's attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (Sarwer et al. 1998, 2003b; Swami and Furnham 2008), such as negative body image (Brown et al. 2007; Markey and Markey 2009), appearance-based self-esteem (Delinsky 2005), attachment anxiety (Davis and Vernon 2002), Big-Five personality traits (Swami et al. 2009a), previous personal or vicarious experiences with cosmetic surgery (Swami et al. 2008), intense-personal celebrity worship (Swami et al. 2009b), materialism and parental attitudes (Henderson-King and Brooks 2009), appearancerelated teasing (Markey and Markey 2009; Sarwer et al. 2003a, b), internalized media appearance ideals (Sarwer et al. 2005; Sperry et al. 2009), and appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Calogero et al. 2010; Park et al. 2009, 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigated cosmetic surgery attitudes within the framework of objectification theory. One hundred predominantly White, British undergraduate women completed self-report measures of impression management, global self-esteem, interpersonal sexual objectification, self-surveillance, body shame, and three components of cosmetic surgery attitudes. As expected, each of the objectification theory variables predicted greater consideration of having cosmetic surgery in the future. Also, as expected, sexual objectification and body shame uniquely predicted social motives for cosmetic surgery, whereas self-surveillance uniquely predicted intrapersonal motives for cosmetic surgery. These findings suggest that women’s acceptance of cosmetic surgery as a way to manipulate physical appearance can be partially explained by the degree to which they view themselves through the lenses of sexual and self-objectification. KeywordsCosmetic surgery-Objectification theory-Self-surveillance-Body shame-Sexual objectification
    Sex Roles 07/2010; 63(1):32-41. DOI:10.1007/s11199-010-9759-5 · 1.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "As proposed, the results indicate that aging anxiety is indeed a relevant factor when examining cosmetic surgery attitudes in middle-aged women. Aging anxiety was a positive and unique predictor of social motivations for cosmetic surgery, suggesting that the many social benefits of a youthful appearance, such as greater employment (Saucier, 2004) and romantic prospects (Didie & Sarwer, 2003), may motivate use of these procedures by women during mid-life. Furthermore, aging anxiety was correlated (although not uniquely) with future consideration, indicating that it may in fact translate to cosmetic surgery use, via body dissatisfaction and appearance investment, providing an avenue for future research. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in terms of general attitudes, social motivations, and actual consideration). Body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, and both media variables predicted some facet of attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Specifically, appearance investment, aging anxiety, and television exposure were unique predictors of endorsement of social motivations for cosmetic surgery, whereas body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, and television exposure were unique predictors of actual consideration of cosmetic surgery. Regression analysis revealed that the effects of media on cosmetic surgery attitudes were primarily direct. We concluded that there are multiple influences on attitudes toward cosmetic surgery for women of middle age.
    Psychology of Women Quarterly 02/2010; 34(1):65 - 74. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2009.01542.x · 2.12 Impact Factor
Show more