Isolation and clonal analysis of human epidermal keratinocyte stem cells in long-term culture.
ABSTRACT We developed a procedure for growing normal epidermal keratinocyte stem cells isolated from a single punch biopsy of adult human skin in long-term culture. Primary skin epithelial cells were maintained in collagen-coated plates with irradiated human neonatal foreskin fibroblasts (line HPI.1) as a feeder for more than 120 days, approximately 115 population doublings, without signs of replicative senescence. Clonal analysis revealed the presence of holoclones, meroclones, and paraclones. Only emerging colonies with high proliferative potentials and extensive capacities for division (holoclones and meroclones) were subcultured, favoring the expansion of stem cells and progenitors capable of prolonged self-maintenance when subcloned, thus accounting for the prevailing long-term proliferation of the original culture. We found that meroclones included bipotent progenitors capable of generating both keratinocytes and mucin-producing cells. The numbers of these cells were greater after confluence, suggesting that commitment for their differentiation occurred late in the life of a single clone. On a three-dimensional gelatin matrix and on a collagen layer containing the fibroblast feeder, cells isolated from the expansion of holoclones and meroclones formed stratified cohesive layers of keratinocytes that were able to further differentiate, as in normal skin. These results indicate that our procedure will serve as a valuable tool to study expansion of epidermal stem cells as well as the growth mechanisms and cell products associated with their growth and differentiation.
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ABSTRACT: The human mammary gland is organized developmentally as a hierarchy of progenitor cells that become progressively restricted in their proliferative abilities and lineage options. Three types of human mammary epithelial cell progenitors are now identified. The first is thought to be a luminal-restricted progenitor; in vitro under conditions that support both luminal and myoepithelial cell differentiation, this cell produces clones of differentiating daughter cells that are exclusively positive for markers characteristic of luminal cells produced in vivo (i.e., keratins 8/18 and 19, epithelial cell adhesion molecule [EpCAM] and MUC1). The second type is a bipotent progenitor. It is identified by its ability to produce "mixed" colonies in single cell assays. These colonies contain a central core of cells expressing luminal markers surrounded by cells with a morphology and markers (e.g., keratin 14(+)) characteristic of myoepithelial cells. Serial passage in vitro of an enriched population of bipotent progenitors promotes the expansion of a third type of progenitor that is thought to be myoepithelial-restricted because it only produces cells with myoepithelial features. Luminal-restricted and bipotent progenitors can prospectively be isolated as distinct subpopulations from freshly dissociated suspensions of normal human mammary cells. Both are distinguished from many other cell types in mammary tissue by their expression of EpCAM and CD49f (alpha6 integrin). They are distinguished from each other by their differential expression of MUC1, which is expressed at much higher levels on the luminal progenitors. To relate the role of these progenitors to the generation of the three-dimensional tubuloalveolar structure of the mammary tree produced in vivo, we propose a model in which the commitment to the luminal versus the myoepithelial lineage may play a determining role in the generation of alveoli and ducts.Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 02/2005; 10(1):49-59. · 6.74 Impact Factor