Popitam: towards new heuristic strategies to improve protein identification from tandem mass spectrometry data.
ABSTRACT In recent years, proteomics research has gained importance due to increasingly powerful techniques in protein purification, mass spectrometry and identification, and due to the development of extensive protein and DNA databases from various organisms. Nevertheless, current identification methods from spectrometric data have difficulties in handling modifications or mutations in the source peptide. Moreover, they have low performance when run on large databases (such as genomic databases), or with low quality data, for example due to bad calibration or low fragmentation of the source peptide. We present a new algorithm dedicated to automated protein identification from tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data by searching a peptide sequence database. Our identification approach shows promising properties for solving the specific difficulties enumerated above. It consists of matching theoretical peptide sequences issued from a database with a structured representation of the source MS/MS spectrum. The representation is similar to the spectrum graphs commonly used by de novo sequencing software. The identification process involves the parsing of the graph in order to emphasize relevant sections for each theoretical sequence, and leads to a list of peptides ranked by a correlation score. The parsing of the graph, which can be a highly combinatorial task, is performed by a bio-inspired algorithm called Ant Colony Optimization algorithm.
- SourceAvailable from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Proteomics is the study of proteins on a large scale, encompassing the many interests scientists and physicians have in their expression and physical properties. Proteomics continues to be a rapidly expanding field, with a wealth of reports regularly appearing on technology enhancements and scientific studies using these new tools. This review focuses primarily on the quantitative aspect of protein expression and the associated computational machinery for making large-scale identifications of proteins and their post-translational modifications. The primary emphasis is on the combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods and associated tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Tandem mass spectrometry, or MS/MS, involves a second analysis within the instrument after a molecular dissociative event in order to obtain structural information including but not limited to sequence information. This review further focuses primarily on the study of in vitro digested proteins known as bottom-up or shotgun proteomics. A brief discussion of recent instrumental improvements precedes a discussion on affinity enrichment and depletion of proteins, followed by a review of the major approaches (label-free and isotope-labeling) to making protein expression measurements quantitative, especially in the context of profiling large numbers of proteins. Then a discussion follows on the various computational techniques used to identify peptides and proteins from LC-MS/MS data. This review article then includes a short discussion of LC-MS approaches to three-dimensional structure determination and concludes with a section on statistics and data mining for proteomics, including comments on properly powering clinical studies and avoiding over-fitting with large data sets.Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 06/2011; 722(2):171-82. · 3.90 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The ultimate goal of proteomics is determination of the exact chemical composition of protein species, including their complete amino acid sequence and the identification of each modified side chain, in every protein in a biological sample and their quantification. We are still far from achieving this goal due to limitations in analytical methodology and data analysis but also due to the fact that we surely have not discovered all amino acid modifications that occur in nature. To detect modified side chains and to discover new, still unknown amino acid derivatives, an understanding of the chemistry of the reactive groups of amino acids is mandatory. This tutorial focuses on the chemistry of the amino acid side chains and addresses non-enzymatic modifications. By highlighting some exemplary reactions a glimpse of the huge diversity of modified amino acids provides the reader with sufficient insight into amino acid chemistry to raise the awareness for unexpected side chain modifications. We further introduce the reader to a terminology, which enables the comprehensive description of the exact chemical composition of a protein species, including its full amino acid sequence and all modifications of its amino acid side chains. This Tutorial is part of the International Proteomics Tutorial Programme (IPTP number 10).Journal of proteomics 02/2012; 75(8):2275-96. · 5.07 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are the primary locus for the generation of reactive nitrogen species including peroxynitrite and subsequent protein tyrosine nitration. Protein tyrosine nitration may have important functional and biological consequences such as alteration of enzyme catalytic activity. In the present study, mouse liver mitochondria were incubated with peroxynitrite, and the mitochondrial proteins were separated by 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis. Nitrotyrosinylated proteins were detected with an anti-nitrotyrosine antibody. One of the major proteins nitrated by peroxynitrite was carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) as identified by LC-MS protein analysis and Western blotting. The band intensity of nitration normalized to CPS1 was increased in a peroxynitrite concentration-dependent manner. In addition, CPS1 activity was decreased by treatment with peroxynitrite in a peroxynitrite concentration- and time-dependent manner. The decreased CPS1 activity was not recovered by treatment with reduced glutathione, suggesting that the decrease of the CPS1 activity is due to tyrosine nitration rather than cysteine oxidation. LC-MS analysis of in-gel digested samples, and a Popitam-based modification search located 5 out of 36 tyrosine residues in CPS1 that were nitrated. Taken together with previous findings regarding CPS1 structure and function, homology modeling of mouse CPS1 suggested that nitration at Y1450 in an α-helix of allosteric domain prevents activation of CPS1 by its activator, N-acetyl-l-glutamate. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the tyrosine nitration of CPS1 by peroxynitrite and its functional consequence. Since CPS1 is responsible for ammonia removal in the urea cycle, nitration of CPS1 with attenuated function might be involved in some diseases and drug-induced toxicities associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2012; 420(1):54-60. · 2.41 Impact Factor