Association between eating patterns and obesity in a free-living US adult population

Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.
American Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 08/2003; 158(1):85-92.
Source: PubMed


Some studies have suggested that eating patterns, which describe eating frequency, the temporal distribution of eating events across the day, breakfast skipping, and the frequency of eating meals away from home, may be related to obesity. Data from the Seasonal Variation of Blood Cholesterol Study (1994-1998) were used to evaluate the relation between eating patterns and obesity. Three 24-hour dietary recalls and a body weight measurement were collected at five equally spaced time points over a 1-year period from 499 participants. Data were averaged for five time periods, and a cross-sectional analysis was conducted. Odds ratios were adjusted for other obesity risk factors including age, sex, physical activity, and total energy intake. Results indicate that a greater number of eating episodes each day was associated with a lower risk of obesity (odds ratio for four or more eating episodes vs. three or fewer = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.33, 0.91). In contrast, skipping breakfast was associated with increased prevalence of obesity (odds ratio = 4.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 12.90), as was greater frequency of eating breakfast or dinner away from home. Further investigation of these associations in prospective studies is warranted.

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    • "The increased body weight and adiposity of XX male and female mice was related to increased food intake specifically during the inactive period of the diurnal cycle, without alterations in activity or energy expenditure relative to XY mice. Emerging evidence in humans and rodents suggests that disruption of the diurnal feeding pattern, especially increased caloric intake during the inactive phase, is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome (Colles et al., 2007; Ma et al., 2003; Sierra-Johnson et al., 2008). For example , night-time eating in humans is associated with enhanced weight gain and obesity compared to similar caloric intake during normal meal times (Gallant et al., 2012). "
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    Hormones and Behavior 07/2015; 75. DOI:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2015.07.020 · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    • "Eating frequency is one of the most investigated MIB, but the relations found with obesity are controversial , perhaps due to the fact that eating occasions – meals and snacks – are generally not investigated separately and/or the kind of meal is not specified. For example, Gigante, Barros, Post, and Olinto (1997) and Ma et al. (2003) showed that a lower frequency of obesity was associated with eating more than three times per day "
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