Association between eating patterns and obesity in a free-living US adult population

Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.
American Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 08/2003; 158(1):85-92.
Source: PubMed


Some studies have suggested that eating patterns, which describe eating frequency, the temporal distribution of eating events across the day, breakfast skipping, and the frequency of eating meals away from home, may be related to obesity. Data from the Seasonal Variation of Blood Cholesterol Study (1994-1998) were used to evaluate the relation between eating patterns and obesity. Three 24-hour dietary recalls and a body weight measurement were collected at five equally spaced time points over a 1-year period from 499 participants. Data were averaged for five time periods, and a cross-sectional analysis was conducted. Odds ratios were adjusted for other obesity risk factors including age, sex, physical activity, and total energy intake. Results indicate that a greater number of eating episodes each day was associated with a lower risk of obesity (odds ratio for four or more eating episodes vs. three or fewer = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.33, 0.91). In contrast, skipping breakfast was associated with increased prevalence of obesity (odds ratio = 4.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 12.90), as was greater frequency of eating breakfast or dinner away from home. Further investigation of these associations in prospective studies is warranted.

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Available from: Yunsheng Ma, Oct 05, 2015
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    • "The effects of increased meal frequency on the energy balance equation Over 50 years ago, it was reported that lower meal frequency was associated with increased body weight [6]. Since then, a number of observational studies have supported this notion [7] [8] [31]. However, as recently reviewed [32], these data should be interpreted with caution. "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity prevalence continues to rise throughout the developed world, as a result of positive energy balance and reduced physical activity. At present, there is still a perception within the general community, and amongst some nutritionists, that eating multiple small meals spaced throughout the day is beneficial for weight control and metabolic health. However, intervention trials do not generally support the epidemiological evidence, and data is emerging to suggest that increasing the fasting period between meals may beneficially impact body weight and metabolic health. To date, this evidence is of short term duration, and it is becoming increasingly apparent that meal timing must also be considered if we are to ensure optimal health benefits in response to this dietary pattern. The purpose of this review is to summate the existing human literature on modifying meal frequency and timing on body weight control, appetite regulation, energy expenditure, and metabolic health under conditions of energy balance, restriction and surplus. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Biochimie 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.biochi.2015.07.025 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    • "Eating frequency is one of the most investigated MIB, but the relations found with obesity are controversial , perhaps due to the fact that eating occasions – meals and snacks – are generally not investigated separately and/or the kind of meal is not specified. For example, Gigante, Barros, Post, and Olinto (1997) and Ma et al. (2003) showed that a lower frequency of obesity was associated with eating more than three times per day "
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    ABSTRACT: The study aims to evaluate the association between abdominal obesity with meal intake behaviour such as having a forenoon meal, having an afternoon meal and snacking. This cross-sectional study includes n=1314 participants aged 20-79 who were interviewed during the Cardiac health "Semanas del Corazon" events in four Spanish cities (Madrid, Las Palmas, Seville and Valencia) in 2008. Waist circumference, weight and height were assessed to determine abdominal obesity (waist circumference: ≥ 88cm in women and ≥102cm in men) and BMI, respectively. The intake of forenoon and afternoon meal, and snacking between the participants regularly meals were assessed with a questionnaire which also included individual risk factors. The information obtained about diet was required to calculate an Unhealthy Habit Score and a score reflecting the Achievement of Dietary Guidelines. Adjusted logistic regressions were used to examine the association between abdominal obesity and the mentioned meal intake behaviour controlling for sex, age, individual risk factors, BMI and diet. Having an afternoon meal (OR 0.60; 95% CI (0.41-0.88)), was negatively associated with abdominal obesity after adjusting for all confounders, whereas the positive association of snacking (OR 1.39; 95% CI (1.05-1.85)) was not independent of BMI (OR 1.25; 95% CI (0.84-1.87)). Taking a forenoon meal did not show any associations (OR 0.92; 95% CI (0.63-1.34)) with abdominal obesity. The results obtained could be helpful in the promotion of healthy habits in nutritional education programs and also in health programs preventing abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Appetite 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2015.04.077 · 2.69 Impact Factor
    • "Daily meal frequencies, and breakfast skipping in particular, have been linked to risk for overweight and obesity in UK, USA, and Australian populations, and are associated with female gender, lower socioeconomic status (SES), urban environments, and older age.[8910] Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that regularly skipping breakfast is associated with greater body mass index (BMI) in all age-groups;[11121314151617] However, the mechanisms that might explain the relation between breakfast consumption and body weight are not yet well understood.[18] However, it remains unclear whether breakfast skipping plays a causal role in overweight or is associated with other factors impacting BMI such as parental involvement in food decisions.[19] "
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and its prevalence continues to increase at a rapid rate in various populations and across all age-group. The effect of meal skipping, both behaviorally and physiologically, may have an impact on the outcome of weight-loss efforts.Aims and Objectives:Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of breakfast skipping and obesity in subjects.Materials and Methods:A retrospective analysis of the patients visited to a metabolic clinic of the city was done.Results:One hundred and eighty-six eligible subjects were included for the study. A questionnaire was used for data collection which included information regarding dietary factors and exercise schedule/physical activity. A 24-hour dietary recall method was used to assess the amount of food consumed. Anthropometric measurements were taken.Conclusion:The higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in the present study could be because of imbalance in the diet and faulty food habits prevalent in the region.
    09/2014; 18(5):683-7. DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.139233
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