Characterization of the human UBE3B gene: structure, expression, evolution, and alternative splicing.
ABSTRACT E3 ubiquitin ligases target proteins for degradation by adding ubiquitin residues. We characterized full-length cDNAs for human and mouse UBE3B, a novel HECT-domain E3 ligase, and analyzed the structure of human UBE3B on chromosome 12q24.1. Alternative splicing of exon 20 of UBE3B generated two major transcripts. The 5.7-kb mRNA lacked exon 20 and encoded a full-length protein ligase, variant 1 (UBE3B_v1). A second transcript contained a 97-bp insertion encoded by exon 20 that introduced an in-frame stop codon. The predicted protein (UBE3B_v2) would lack the HECT domain and would be nonfunctional, since the HECT domain constitutes the active site for ubiquitin transfer. No alternative splicing was observed in this region of mouse UBE3B. Elimination of the HECT domain by alternative splicing has not been reported in any genes encoding HECT domain ligases and may represent a novel mechanism in regulating intracellular levels of functional HECT-domain ligases.
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ABSTRACT: The post-translational modification of proteins by the ubiquitination pathway is an important regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes. To date, however, studies on the evolutionary history of the proteins involved in this pathway have been restricted to E1 and E2 enzymes, while E3 studies have been focused mainly in metazoans and plants. To have a wider perspective, here we perform a genomic survey of the HECT family of E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases, an important part of this post-translational pathway, in genomes from representatives of all major eukaryotic lineages. We classify eukaryotic HECTs and reconstruct, by phylogenetic analysis, the putative repertoire of these proteins in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). Furthermore, we analyse the diversity and complexity of protein domain architectures of HECTs along the different extant eukaryotic lineages. Our data show that LECA had six different HECTs and that protein expansion and N-terminal domain diversification shaped HECT evolution. Our data reveal that the genomes of animals and unicellular holozoans considerably increased the molecular and functional diversity of their HECT system compared to other eukaryotes. Other eukaryotes, such as the Apusozoa Thecanomas trahens or the Heterokonta Phytophthora infestans independently expanded their HECT repertoire. In contrast, plant, excavate, rhodophyte, chlorophyte and fungal genomes have a more limited enzymatic repertoire. Our genomic survey and phylogenetic analysis clarifies the origin and evolution of different HECT families among eukaryotes and provides a useful phylogenetic framework for future evolutionary studies of this regulatory pathway.Genome Biology and Evolution 04/2013; 5(5). DOI:10.1093/gbe/evt052 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The HERC family of ubiquitin ligases is characterized by the presence of a HECT domain and one or more RCC1-like domains. We report the identification of two novel members, HERC4 and HERC6, and subdivide the family into one group of two large and one group of four small members according to protein size and domain structure. The small members share a similar genomic organization, three of them mapping to chromosomal region 4q22, indicating strong evolutionary cohesions. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the HERC ancestor emerged in nematodes and that the family expanded throughout evolution. The mRNA expression pattern of the small human members was found to be diverse in selected tissues and cells; overexpressed proteins display a similar cytosolic distribution. These data indicate that the HERC family members exhibit similarities in many aspects, but also sufficient differences indicating functional diversity.Genomics 03/2005; 85(2):153-64. DOI:10.1016/j.ygeno.2004.10.006 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) develops de novo or secondarily to either myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or anticancer treatment (therapy-related leukemia, TRL). Prominent dysplasia of blood cells is apparent in individuals with MDS-related AML as well as in some patients with TRL or even with de novo AML. The clinical entity of AML with multilineage dysplasia (AML-MLD) is likely to be an amalgamation of MDS-related AML and de novo AML-MLD. The aim of this study was to clarify, by the use of high-density oligonucleotide microarrays, whether these subcategories of AML are intrinsically distinct from each other. The AC133+ hematopoietic stem cell-like fractions were purified from the bone marrow of individuals with de novo AML without dysplasia (n = 15), AML-MLD (n = 11), MDS-related AML (n = 11), or TRL (n = 2), and were subjected to the synthesis of cRNA which was subsequently hybridized to microarray harboring oligonucleotide corresponding to more than 12,000 probe sets. We could identify many genes whose expression was specific to these various subcategories of AML. Furthermore, with the correspondence analysis/three-dimensional projection strategy, we were able to visualize the independent, yet partially overlapping, nature of current AML subcategories on the basis of their transcriptomes. Our data indicate the possibility of subclassification of AML based on gene expression profiles of leukemic blasts.Experimental Hematology 10/2004; 32(9):828-35. DOI:10.1016/j.exphem.2004.06.003 · 2.81 Impact Factor