Maternal smoking and smoking in adolescents: a prospective community study of adolescents and their mothers.

Clinical Psychology and Epidemiology Unit, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.
European Addiction Research (Impact Factor: 2.07). 08/2003; 9(3):120-30. DOI: 10.1159/000070980
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The associations between maternal smoking and nicotine dependence and patterns of smoking and nicotine dependence in offspring were examined in a large community-based sample of adolescents. Data were derived from baseline and 4-year follow-up assessments of 938 respondents aged 14-17 years at the outset of the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology (EDSP) study, a prospective-longitudinal community study of adolescents and young adults and their parents respectively. Smoking and nicotine dependence in respondents were assessed using the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (DSM-IV algorithms). Diagnostic information about smoking behavior in mothers was collected by independent direct diagnostic interviews with the mothers. In comparison to children of non- or occasionally smoking mothers, children of regularly smoking and nicotine-dependent mothers had higher probabilities of using tobacco as well as of developing nicotine dependence. For all ages under consideration, survival analyses revealed a higher cumulative lifetime risk of regular smoking and nicotine dependence among these children. Maternal smoking during pregnancy seems to represent an additional risk for these outcomes in children, specifically with regard to the risk of developing nicotine dependence. Associations were comparable for sons and daughters. Our findings show that maternal smoking predicts escalation of smoking, development of nicotine dependence, and stability of smoking behavior in children. Implications for specific intervention and prevention efforts are discussed.

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with significant infant morbidity and mortality, and may influence later disease risk. One mechanism by which smoking (and other environmental factors) might have long-lasting effects is through epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation. Objectives: We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) investigating alterations in DNA methylation in infants exposed in utero to maternal tobacco smoke, using the Norway Facial Clefts Study. Methods: The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was used to assess DNA methylation in whole blood from 889 infants shortly after delivery. Of 889 mothers, 287 reported smoking—twice as many smokers as in any previous EWAS of maternal smoking. CpG sites related to maternal smoking during the first trimester were identified using robust linear regression. Results: We identified 185 CpGs with altered methylation in infants of smokers at genome-wide significance (q-value < 0.05; mean Δβ = ± 2%). These correspond to 110 gene regions, of which 7 have been previously reported and 10 are newly confirmed using publicly available results. Among these 10, the most noteworthy are FRMD4A, ATP9A, GALNT2, and MEG3, implicated in processes related to nicotine dependence, smoking cessation, and placental and embryonic development. Conclusions: Our study identified 10 genes with newly established links to maternal smoking. Further, we note differences between smoking-related methylation changes in newborns and adults, suggesting possible distinct effects of direct versus indirect tobacco smoke exposure as well as potential differences due to age. Further work would be needed to determine whether these small changes in DNA methylation are biologically or clinically relevant. The methylation changes identified in newborns may mediate the association between in utero maternal smoking exposure and later health outcomes. Citation: Markunas CA, Xu Z, Harlid S, Wade PA, Lie RT, Taylor JA, Wilcox AJ. 2014. Identification of DNA methylation changes in newborns related to maternal smoking during pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect 122:1147–1153;
    Environmental Health Perspectives 06/2014; 122(10). DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307892 · 7.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have linked maternal smoking during pregnancy with regular tobacco use in offspring, but findings are not consistent and confounding from genetic and environmental factors have not fully been taken into account. A comparison between siblings discordant for prenatal smoking exposure adjusts for confounding by shared familial (i.e., genetic and environmental) factors. We investigated the association between prenatal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of regular smoking or snus (Swedish moist smokeless tobacco) use in young adult offspring, using a population based matched cohort study. The cohort consisted of 1,538 randomly sampled same-sex sibling pairs, discordant for maternal smoking during pregnancy, 19-27 years old, participating in a survey conducted in Sweden 2010-2011. Lifetime and current history of tobacco use was self-reported in the survey, and information about maternal smoking during pregnancy was retrieved from the Medical Birth Register. Conditional logistic regression and stratified Cox proportional hazards regression were used to calculate odds ratios, hazard ratios, and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals. Analyses of exposure-discordant siblings did not reveal significant associations between prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and lifetime or current daily tobacco use, intensity of use, or time to onset of daily tobacco use. These findings suggest that the previously reported higher risks of tobacco use in offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy, compared with offspring of non-smoking mothers, were likely due to confounding from genetic or environmental factors.
    European Journal of Epidemiology 05/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10654-014-9912-5 · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to examine whether (a) low child valence (emotional connectedness) within the mother-child relationship increases the risk for offspring depression, (b) low child potency (individual autonomy) increases the risk for offspring anxiety, and (c) maternal psychopathology pronounces these associations. We used data from a prospective-longitudinal study of adolescents (aged 14-17 at baseline) and their mothers (N = 1,015 mother-child dyads). Anxiety disorders and depression were assessed repeatedly over 10 years in adolescents (T0, T1, T2, T3) and their mothers (T1, T3) using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Valence and potency were assessed in mothers (T1) with the Subjective Family Image Questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression were used to estimate associations between low child valence/potency and offspring psychopathology (cumulated lifetime incidences; adjusted for sex and age). In separate models (low valence or low potency as predictor), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.26 per SD), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety (OR = 1.24) and depression (OR = 1.24). In multiple models (low valence and low potency as predictors), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.19), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety only (OR = 1.22). Low child potency interacted with maternal anxiety on predicting offspring depression (OR = 1.49), i.e. low child potency predicted offspring depression only in the presence of maternal anxiety (OR = 1.33). These findings suggest that low child valence increases the risk for offspring depression, while low child potency increases the risk for offspring anxiety and depression and interacts with maternal psychopathology on predicting offspring depression.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 09/2014; 24(4). DOI:10.1007/s00787-014-0596-x · 3.55 Impact Factor


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