Maternal Smoking and Smoking in Adolescents: A Prospective Community Study of Adolescents and Their Mothers

Clinical Psychology and Epidemiology Unit, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.
European Addiction Research (Impact Factor: 2.1). 08/2003; 9(3):120-30. DOI: 10.1159/000070980
Source: PubMed


The associations between maternal smoking and nicotine dependence and patterns of smoking and nicotine dependence in offspring were examined in a large community-based sample of adolescents. Data were derived from baseline and 4-year follow-up assessments of 938 respondents aged 14-17 years at the outset of the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology (EDSP) study, a prospective-longitudinal community study of adolescents and young adults and their parents respectively. Smoking and nicotine dependence in respondents were assessed using the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (DSM-IV algorithms). Diagnostic information about smoking behavior in mothers was collected by independent direct diagnostic interviews with the mothers. In comparison to children of non- or occasionally smoking mothers, children of regularly smoking and nicotine-dependent mothers had higher probabilities of using tobacco as well as of developing nicotine dependence. For all ages under consideration, survival analyses revealed a higher cumulative lifetime risk of regular smoking and nicotine dependence among these children. Maternal smoking during pregnancy seems to represent an additional risk for these outcomes in children, specifically with regard to the risk of developing nicotine dependence. Associations were comparable for sons and daughters. Our findings show that maternal smoking predicts escalation of smoking, development of nicotine dependence, and stability of smoking behavior in children. Implications for specific intervention and prevention efforts are discussed.

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    • "With regard to smoking behaviour in adolescents, exposure to smoking by significant others is related to the development of nicotine dependence symptoms. Children had a higher risk of becoming nicotine dependent from adolescence to early adulthood when their mother had ever smoked, been a daily smoker, or was dependent on nicotine [28,29]. Having smoking peers was also associated with higher levels of nicotine dependence in adolescents [28,30,31]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although several studies have reported that symptoms of nicotine dependence can occur after limited exposure to smoking, the majority of research on nicotine dependence has focused on adult smokers. Insufficient knowledge exists regarding the epidemiology and aetiology of nicotine dependence among adolescent smokers. The objective of the present study is to identify the effects of theoretically driven social and individual predictors of nicotine dependence symptom profiles in a population-based sample of adolescent smokers. A longitudinal study among 6,783 adolescents (12 to 14 years old at baseline) was conducted. In the first and second year of secondary education, personality traits and exposure to smoking in the social environment were assessed. Two and a half years later, adolescents' smoking status and nicotine dependence symptom profiles were assessed. A total of 796 adolescents were identified as smokers and included in the analyses. At follow-up, four distinct dependence symptom profiles were identified: low cravings only, high cravings and withdrawal, high cravings and behavioural dependence, and overall highly dependent. Personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion did not independently predict nicotine dependence profiles, whereas exposure to smoking in the social environment posed a risk for the initial development of nicotine dependence symptoms. However, in combination with environmental exposure to smoking, extraversion and neuroticism increased the risk of developing more severe dependence symptom profiles. Nicotine dependence profiles are predicted by interactions between personal and environmental factors. These insights offer important directions for tailoring interventions to prevent the onset and escalation of nicotine dependence. Opportunities for intervention programs that target individuals with a high risk of developing more severe dependence symptom profiles are discussed.
    BMC Public Health 03/2012; 12(1):196. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-196 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "The most likely adults that adolescents would spend time around are their parents. Parents' smoking is associated with adolescent nicotine dependence symptoms (Lieb et al., 2003; Kandel et al., 2007) as well as smoking initiation and escalation (Bricker et al., 2006; Bricker, Peterson, Sarason, Andersen, & Rajan, 2007). Therefore, the current study's results would be consistent with interpretation that adults' smoking is a proxy indicator of the role of parents' smoking in adolescent nicotine dependence symptoms. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-sectionally examined seven theory-guided psychosocial factors associated with nicotine dependence symptoms in a representative self-report survey of 794 Washington State high school junior daily smokers (93% participation). Outcomes were four nicotine dependence symptoms. Results showed that low self-efficacy for quitting smoking and being around adults who smoke were associated with a 3.48-10.35 and a 1.47-1.77 times higher odds, respectively, of each of the four nicotine dependence symptoms. These results, needing replication in a longitudinal study, suggest that interventions designed to enhance self-efficacy to quit smoking and counter adult smoking influences might reduce adolescent nicotine dependence.
    Substance Use &amp Misuse 03/2012; 47(6):640-8. DOI:10.3109/10826084.2011.647221 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Milberger et al., 1998), conduct disorder (e.g., destructive and aggressive behavior)(Braun et al., 2008; Wakschlag et al., 1997), and cognitive deficits (Naeye and Peters, 1984) in the offspring. In addition, the children of mothers who smoked during their pregnancy are more likely to develop a tobacco dependency than the children of mothers who did not smoke (Buka et al., 2003; Kandel et al., 1994; Lieb et al., 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies indicate that parental smoking increases the risk for smoking in children. However, the underlying mechanisms by which parental smoking increases the risk for smoking are not known. The aim of these studies was to investigate if preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure, postnatal days 21-35, affects the rewarding effects of nicotine and nicotine withdrawal in adult rats. The rewarding effects of nicotine were investigated with the conditioned place preference procedure. Nicotine withdrawal was investigated with the conditioned place aversion procedure and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). Elevations in brain reward thresholds in the ICSS paradigm reflect a dysphoric state. Plasma nicotine and cotinine levels in the preadolescent rats immediately after smoke exposure were 188 ng/ml and 716 ng/ml, respectively. Preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure led to the development of nicotine dependence as indicated by an increased number of mecamylamine-precipitated somatic withdrawal signs in the preadolescent tobacco smoke exposed rats compared to the control rats. Nicotine induced a similar place preference in adult rats that had been exposed to tobacco smoke or air during preadolescence. Furthermore, mecamylamine induced place aversion in nicotine dependent rats but there was no effect of preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure. Finally, preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure did not affect the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with precipitated or spontaneous nicotine withdrawal. These studies indicate that passive exposure to tobacco smoke during preadolescence leads to the development of nicotine dependence but preadolescent tobacco smoke exposure does not seem to affect the rewarding effects of nicotine or nicotine withdrawal in adulthood.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 03/2010; 95(4):401-9. DOI:10.1016/j.pbb.2010.02.018 · 2.78 Impact Factor
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