RNA processing defects of the helicase gene RECQL4 in a compound heterozygous Rothmund-Thomson patient
ABSTRACT Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) (OMIM 268400) is an autosomal recessive genodermatosis associated with genomic instability and increased risk of mesenchymal cancers. Mutations in the RECQL4 gene, encoding a protein of the family of Werner (WRN) and Bloom (BLM) helicases, have been identified in a subset of RTS patients. Apart from congenital poikiloderma, the clinical presentation of RTS is widely variable, raising the question of the possible existence of a second locus. Results herein reported on a sporadic Caucasian patient emphasize the concept that mutation analyses at both DNA and RNA level complement the genetic defect suggested by clinical and cytogenetic signs. The patient presented with typical congenital poikiloderma and bone defects and exhibited significant genomic instability in the peripheral blood karyotype. By RECQL4 DNA mutation analysis, he was found to carry a 1473delT (mut 5) on one allele and an AG to AC change at the 3'-splice site of exon 13 (a variant of mut 4) on the second allele. RT-PCR analysis of RECQL4 cDNA encompassing the entire helicase domain showed diffuse splicing defects indicating that the loss of a single 3'-splice signal motif disregulates the correct splice-site selection and affects the overall RNA processing. The presence of an unstable minisatellite which ends at 3'-splice site of IVS12 may enhance the mutation at this site. This genomic feature together with a number of short introns in the RECQL4 gene may account for the common missplicing of RECQL4 mRNA. While it is possible that defects of RECQL4 mRNA processing might account for part of the clinical variability observed for this syndrome, only a thorough analysis at both genomic and RNA level may allow a genotype-phenotype correlation in RTS patients, restricting the search of a second RTS locus to the specific patients.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by genomic instability and increased risk of various malignancies, especially osteosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma. We report the first RTS patient who developed a central nervous system (CNS)-related neoplasm. Case description: A 28-year-old male, previously diagnosed with RTS , developed a massive parasagital lesion, detected by magnetic resonance imaging. The tumor was surgically removed and histologically diagnosed as atypical meningioma. Preoperative symptoms were dramatically improved. Conclusions: This is the first description of a CNS-related malignancy in RTS patients. Although rare, the genomic instability and additional risk factors of this syndrome should be considered in choosing the course of treatment.Surgical Neurology International 12/2012; 3(1):148. DOI:10.4103/2152-7806.104742 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rothmund-Thomson syndrome is a rare genodermatosis caused by biallelic mutations of the RECQL4 gene and is characterised by poikiloderma, sparse hair, eyelashes and/or eyebrows, small stature, skeletal and dental abnormalities and cancer predisposition. Mutations predicted to result in the loss of RECQL4 protein have been associated with osteosarcoma risk, but mutation(s)-phenotype correlations are better addressed by combined DNA and RNA analyses. We describe two siblings with a mild phenotype, mainly restricted to the skin, who carry the unreported paternal c.2272C>T alteration in exon 14 and the previously reported maternal exon 15 c.2492_2493delAT, both predicted to result in premature termination codons (p.(Arg758*), p.(His831Argfs*52)). However real-time and transcript analysis showed, in the carrier father and affected daughter, increased levels of a novel RECQL4 physiological alternative transcript with partial in-frame skipping of exon 14, generated by increased usage of a weak cryptic splice site. This alternative transcript is expressed in all controls and tested tissues, its upregulation is specific to the paternal c.2272C>T mutation and depends on the abrogation of the binding motifs for SF2 and SRp55 serine/arginine-rich proteins with bypass of the mutation site located in the skipped exon 14 portion. Moreover, in the proband the increased levels of the alternative transcript, likely encoding a protein isoform with residual activity, may compensate for the dearth of the canonical transcript with the c.2492_2493delAT, accounting for the mild clinical phenotype of the siblings. Our results emphasise the value of RNA analysis to better predict the effects of RECQL4 mutations on the clinical phenotype.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 12 February 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.18.European journal of human genetics: EJHG 02/2014; 22(11). DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2014.18 · 4.23 Impact Factor
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 08/2004; 129A(1):103-103. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.20637 · 2.05 Impact Factor