Selective imprinting of gut-homing T cells by Peyer's patch dendritic cells.
ABSTRACT Whereas naive T cells migrate only to secondary lymphoid organs, activation by antigen confers to T cells the ability to home to non-lymphoid sites. Activated effector/memory T cells migrate preferentially to tissues that are connected to the secondary lymphoid organs where antigen was first encountered. Thus, oral antigens induce effector/memory cells that express essential receptors for intestinal homing, namely the integrin alpha4beta7 and CCR9, the receptor for the gut-associated chemokine TECK/CCL25 (refs 6, 8, 9). Here we show that this imprinting of gut tropism is mediated by dendritic cells from Peyer's patches. Stimulation of CD8-expressing T cells by dendritic cells from Peyer's patches, peripheral lymph nodes and spleen induced equivalent activation markers and effector activity in T cells, but only Peyer's patch dendritic cells induced high levels of alpha4beta7, responsiveness to TECK and the ability to home to the small intestine. These findings establish that Peyer's patch dendritic cells imprint gut-homing specificity on T cells, and thus license effector/memory cells to access anatomical sites most likely to contain their cognate antigen.
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ABSTRACT: We developed a capacitance sensor with parallel plate geometry to measure epithermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression levels on cell membrane in real-time. We first proved correlations between capacitance changes and cell numbers settled down between electrodes, and then observed capacitance changes elicited by interactions between EGFR on membrane and EGF proteins in real time. Consequently, we confirmed that the EGFR expression levels of varied typed cells were successfully quantified. This approach can effectively distinguish differences of EGFR levels of cancer cells and normal cells in real-time. Also, up to 600% sensitivity enhancements and around 2.2 h on average sensing time saving were achieved by using the capacitance sensor over a conventional immunoassay technique. Such a capacitance biosensor can be extended to broad fields where the receptor–antibody reactions, the receptor–virus reactions or DNA hybridizations are involved.Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 03/2015; 209. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2014.12.001 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein is reported to interact with α4β7, an integrin mediating the homing of lymphocytes to gut-associated lymphoid tissue, but the significance of α4β7 in HIV-1 infection remains controversial. Here, using HIV-1 strain BaL, the gp120 of which was previously shown to be capable of interacting with α4β7, we demonstrated that α4β7 can mediate the binding of whole HIV-1 virions to α4β7-expressing transfectants. We further constructed a cell line stably expressing α4β7 and confirmed the α4β7-mediated HIV-1 binding. In primary lymphocytes with activated α4β7 expression, we also observed significant virus binding which can be inhibited by an anti-α4β7 antibody. Moreover, we investigated the impact of antagonizing α4β7 on HIV-1 infection of primary CD4(+) T cells. In α4β7-activated CD4(+) T cells, both anti-α4β7 antibodies and introduction of short-hairpin RNAs specifically targeting α4β7 resulted in a decreased HIV-1 infection. Our findings indicate that α4β7 may serve as an attachment factor at least for some HIV-1 strains. The established approach provides a promising means for the investigation of other viral strains to understand the potential roles of α4β7 in HIV-1 infection.Virologica Sinica 12/2014; 29(6):381-92. DOI:10.1007/s12250-014-3525-8
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ABSTRACT: The field of mucosal immunology research has grown fast over the past few years, and our understanding on how mucosal surfaces respond to complex antigenic cocktails is expanding tremendously. With the advent of new molecular sequencing techniques, it is easier to understand how the immune system of vertebrates is, to a great extent, orchestrated by the complex microbial communities that live in symbiosis with their hosts. The commensal microbiota is now seen as the "extended self" by many scientists. Similarly, fish immunologist are devoting important research efforts to the field of mucosal immunity and commensals. Recent breakthroughs on our understanding of mucosal immune responses in teleost fish open up the potential of teleosts as animal research models for the study of human mucosal diseases. Additionally, this new knowledge places immunologists in a better position to specifically target the fish mucosal immune system while rationally designing mucosal vaccines and other immunotherapies. In this review, an updated view on how teleost skin, gills and gut immune cells and molecules, function in response to pathogens and commensals is provided. Finally, some of the future avenues that the field of fish mucosal immunity may follow in the next years are highlighted.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 10/2013; 35(6). DOI:10.1016/j.fsi.2013.09.032 · 3.03 Impact Factor