Clinical phenomenology of episodic rage in children with Tourette syndrome.
ABSTRACT Episodic rage of unknown etiology causes significant morbidity in children with Tourette's syndrome (TS). Using modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for intermittent explosive disorder (IED), we developed a screen and symptom questionnaire to explore rage attack phenomenology and to preliminarily investigate whether symptom clusters can identify clinical subgroups of TS children with rage attacks.
48 children with TS between ages 7 and 17 years consecutively presenting with rage attacks completed the Rage Attacks Screen and Questionnaire. Data was subjected to factor analysis. Cluster analytic procedures were used to identify clinical subgroups.
Final cluster solution revealed four homogeneous subgroups of TS children with rage who were differentiated by predominant clinical characteristics: specific urge resolution, environmentally secure reactivity, nonspecific urge resolution or labile nonresolving.
Episodic rage in TS has stereotypic features, but diverse and complex etiologies. Identifying particular symptom clusters may facilitate improved treatment strategies.
Article: Tic Disorders.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Primary tic disorders are complex, multifactorial disorders in which tics are accompanied by other sensory features and an array of comorbid behavioral disorders. Secondary tics are proportionally much less frequent, but their etiology is diverse. This review aims to guide clinicians in the recognition of the phenomenology, pathophysiology, and treatment of these disorders. Advances include greater phenomenologic insights, particularly of nonmotor (sensory) features; increased knowledge of disease mechanisms, particularly coming from neuropsychological, functional imaging, pathologic, and animal model studies; growing evidence on the efficacy of alpha-2 agonists and the newer generation of dopamine-modulating agents; and recent strides in the evaluation of cognitive-behavioral therapy and deep brain stimulation surgery. The correct diagnostic approach to tic disorders requires accurate historical gathering, a thorough neurologic examination, and detailed definition of the patient's psychopathologic profile. Treatment should always begin with individualized psychoeducational strategies. Although pharmacologic treatments remain beneficial for most patients, cognitive-behavioral treatments have thus far shown promising efficacy. Deep brain stimulation surgery should still be limited to adult patients refractory to pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy.10/2013; 19(5, Movement Disorders):1287-1311. DOI:10.1212/01.CON.0000436157.31662.af
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ABSTRACT: Although boys are disproportionately affected by tics in Tourette syndrome (TS), this gender bias is attenuated in adulthood and a recent study has suggested that women may experience greater functional interference from tics than men. The authors assessed the gender distribution of adults in a tertiary University-based TS clinic population and the relative influence of gender and other variables on adult tic severity (YGTSS score) and psychosocial functioning (GAF score). We also determined retrospectively the influence of gender on change in global tic severity and overall TS impairment (YGTSS) since adolescence. Females were over-represented in relation to previously published epidemiologic surveys of both TS children and adults. Female gender was associated with a greater likelihood of tic worsening as opposed to tic improvement in adulthood; a greater likelihood of expansion as opposed to contraction of motor tic distribution; and with increased current motor tic severity and tic-related impairment. However, gender explained only a small percentage of the variance of the YGTSS global severity score and none of the variance of the GAF scale score. Psychosocial functioning was influenced most strongly by tic severity but also by a variety of comorbid neuropsychiatric disorders.European Psychiatry 09/2014; 30(2). DOI:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2014.07.003 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics--rapid, repetitive, stereotyped movements or vocalizations lasting at least one year in duration. The goal of this article was to review the long-term clinical course of tics and frequently co-occurring conditions in children with TS. Methods We conducted a traditional literature search to locate relevant articles regarding long-term outcome and prognosis in TS and tic disorders. Results Tics typically have an onset between the ages of 4 and 6 years and reach their worst-ever severity between the ages of 10 and 12 years. By age 10 years, most children are aware of nearly irresistible somatosensory urges that precede the tics. A momentary sense of relief typically follows the completion of a tic. Over the course of hours, tics occur in bouts, with a regular inter-tic interval. Tics increase during periods of psychosocial stress, emotional excitement and fatigue. Tics can become "complex" in nature and appear to be purposeful. Tics can be willfully suppressed for brief intervals and can be evoked by the mere mention of them. Tics typically diminish during periods of goal-directed behavior. Over the course of months, tics wax and wane. By early adulthood, roughly three-quarters of children with TS will have greatly diminished tic symptoms and more than one-third will be virtually tic free. Conclusion Although tics are the defining aspect of TS, they are often not the most enduring or impairing symptoms in children with TS. Indeed in TS tics rarely occur in isolation, and other coexisting conditions--such as behavioral disinhibition, hypersensitivity to a broad range of sensory stimuli, problems with visual motor integration, procedural learning difficulties, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, anxiety, and emotional instability--are often a greater source of impairment than the tics themselves. Measures used to enhance self-esteem, such as encouraging independence, strong friendships and the exploration of interests, are crucial to ensuring positive adulthood outcome.Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jocrd.2014.03.004 · 0.81 Impact Factor