RAPL, a Rap1-binding molecule that mediates Rap1-induced adhesion through spatial regulation of LFA-1

Department of Molecular Immunology and Allergy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-konoe, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 Japan.
Nature Immunology (Impact Factor: 24.97). 09/2003; 4(8):741-8. DOI: 10.1038/ni950
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The small GTPase Rap1 is a potent activator of leukocyte integrin. However, the regulatory mechanism involved is unknown. Here, we identify the Rap1 effector, RAPL, as an essential regulator in this activation. RAPL was enriched in mouse lymphoid tissues and associated with Rap1 after stimulation by the T cell receptor and with chemokine CXCL12. Human RAPL stimulated lymphocyte polarization and the patch-like redistribution of lymphocyte-function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) to the leading edge, resulting in enhanced adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). Triggered by activated Rap1, RAPL associated with LFA-1 and rapidly relocated to the leading edge and accumulated at immunological synapses. Thus, RAPL regulates lymphocyte adhesion through the spatial distribution of LFA-1.

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    ABSTRACT: Objective Evidence supports an important role for miR-203 in the regulation of the proliferation, migration and invasion of prostate cancer (PCa) cells. However, the exact mechanisms of miR-203 in PCa are not entirely clear.Methods We examined the expression of miR-203 in prostate cancer tissues, adjacent normal tissues, PCa cell lines and normal prostate epithelial cells by qRT-PCR. Then, the effects of miR-203 or Rap1A on proliferation, adhesion and invasion of PCa cells were assayed using CKK-8, adhesion analysis, and transwell invasion assays. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to assess miR-203 binding to Rap1A mRNA. Tumor growth was assessed by subcutaneous inoculation of cells into BALB/c nude mice.ResultsHere, we confirmed that the expression of miR-203 was significantly downregulated in prostate cancer specimens compared with matched adjacent normal prostate specimens. Mechanistic dissection revealed that miR-203 mediated cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo, as evidenced by reduced RAC1, p-PAK1, and p-MEK1 expression. In addition, we identified Rap1A as a direct target suppressed by miR-203, and there was an inverse relationship between the expression of miR-203 and Rap1A in PCa. Knockdown of Rap1A phenocopied the effects of miR-203 on PCa cell growth and invasion. Furthermore, Rap1A over-expression in PCa cells partially reversed the effects of miR-203-expression on cell adhesion and invasion.Conclusions These findings provide further evidence that a crucial role for miR-203 in inhibiting metastasis of PCa through the suppression of Rap1A expression.