Associations of maternal and umbilical cord hormone concentrations with maternal, gestational and neonatal factors (United States).

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Program, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Blvd., Bethesda, MD 20892-7246, USA.
Cancer Causes and Control (Impact Factor: 3.2). 06/2003; 14(4):347-55. DOI: 10.1023/A:1023934518975
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Risks of some cancers in adults have been associated with several pregnancy factors, including greater maternal age and birth weight. For hormone-related cancers, these effects are hypothesized to be mediated through higher in utero estrogen concentrations. In addition, racial differences in pregnancy hormone levels have been suggested as being responsible for differences in testicular and prostate cancer risk by race. However, data on hormonal levels related to these characteristics of pregnancy are sparse, particularly those from studies of the fetal circulation.
Estrogen and androgen concentrations were measured in maternal and umbilical cord sera from 86 normal, singleton pregnancies.
Birth size measures (weight, length and head circumference) were positively correlated with maternal estriol (r = 0.25-0.36) and with cord DHEAS concentrations (r = 0.24-0.41), but not with estrogens in cord sera. Maternal age was inversely correlated with maternal DHEAS, androstenedione and testosterone concentrations (r = -0.30, -0.25 and -0.30, respectively), but uncorrelated with estrogens in either the maternal or cord circulation. Black mothers had higher androstenedione and testosterone concentrations than white mothers, however, there were no racial differences in any of the androgens in cord sera. Cord testosterone concentrations were higher in mothers of male fetuses, while both maternal and cord concentrations of estriol were lower in these pregnancies.
These data demonstrate associations between hormone concentrations and pregnancy factors associated with offspring's cancer risk, however, the hormones involved and their patterns of association differ by whether the maternal or fetal circulation was sampled. Hormone concentrations in the fetal circulation in this study are not consistent with the hypothesis that greater estrogen concentrations in high birth weight babies mediate the positive association with breast cancer risk observed in epidemiologic studies, or with the hypothesis that higher testosterone exposure in the in utero environment of black males explains their higher subsequent prostate cancer risk.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Women with higher parity have a lower risk of ovarian cancer possibly because of pregnancy hormones, but the specific effect of different pregnancy hormones on ovarian cancer risk is not clear. Some clarification might be gained by considering situations where hormone levels vary between pregnancies. Study participants from an Australian population-based, case-control study of epithelial ovarian cancer (2001–2005) completed a reproductive/lifestyle questionnaire. The authors included 1,203 cases and 1,286 controls with at least 1 birth and, using multiple logistic regression, calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to investigate the effects of pregnancy-related factors on cancer risk. Women who had 1 or more preterm births had higher risks of ovarian cancer than those who had only full-term births (odds ratio (OR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 2.15). The authors also found that bearing only boys was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of mucinous ovarian cancer (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.15, 4.17). There was no association between multiple pregnancy and ovarian cancer (for any multiple pregnancy vs. only singleton pregnancies: OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.74, 2.02). The results suggest that pregnancies associated with differing hormonal milieux have different effects on ovarian cancer risk and that some of these associations may vary with histologic subtype.
    American journal of epidemiology 08/2009; · 5.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Exposure to xenoestrogens occurs against a backdrop to physiological levels of endogenous estrogens. Endogenous estrogen levels vary from low levels in early childhood to high levels during pregnancy and in young women. However, few studies have addressed how xenoestrogens interact with endogenous estrogens. The current study was designed to characterize the individual dose-response curves of estradiol-17beta (E(2)), bisphenol A (BPA), tetrabromo-bisphenol A (TBBPA), and bisphenol AF (BPAF, 4,4'-hexafluoroisopropylidene diphenol) on estrogen-dependent luciferase expression in T47D-KBluc cells and to determine how binary (8 x 8 factorial) and ternary (4 x 4 x 4 factorial) mixtures of an endogenous estrogen (E(2)) interact with BPA and/or BPAF. Log EC(50) and hillslope values with SEs, respectively, for individual compounds were as follows: E(2), -12.10M +/- 0.06071, 0.7702 +/- 0.1739; BPA, -6.679M +/- 0.08505, 1.194 +/- 0.2137; and BPAF, -7.648M +/- 0.05527, 1.273 +/- 0.1739. TBBPA was not evaluated in mixture studies because of its minimally estrogenic response at 3 x10(-5)M and elicited cytotoxicity at higher concentrations. Both the binary mixtures of E(2) with BPA and BPAF and the ternary mixture of E(2), BPA, and BPAF behaved in an additive manner. For binary mixtures, as E(2) concentration increased, higher concentrations of BPA and BPAF were necessary to induce a significant increase in the estrogenic response. Understanding the behavior of mixture interactions of xenoestrogens, like BPA and BPAF, with endogenous estrogens will allow a better assessment of the potential risk associated with exposure to these chemicals, individually or as mixtures.
    Toxicological Sciences 05/2010; 116(2):477-87. · 4.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Accurately measuring hormone exposure during prenatal life presents a methodological challenge and there is currently no "gold standard" approach. Ideally, circulating fetal hormone levels would be measured at repeated time points during pregnancy. However, it is not currently possible to obtain fetal blood samples without significant risk to the fetus, and therefore surrogate markers of fetal hormone levels must be utilized. Umbilical cord blood can be readily obtained at birth and largely reflects fetal circulation in late gestation. This review examines the accuracy and biological interpretation of the measurement of androgens and estrogens in cord blood. The use of cord blood hormones to understand and investigate human development is then discussed.
    Frontiers in Endocrinology 01/2014; 5:64.