Associations of maternal and umbilical cord hormone concentrations with maternal, gestational and neonatal factors (United States).
ABSTRACT Risks of some cancers in adults have been associated with several pregnancy factors, including greater maternal age and birth weight. For hormone-related cancers, these effects are hypothesized to be mediated through higher in utero estrogen concentrations. In addition, racial differences in pregnancy hormone levels have been suggested as being responsible for differences in testicular and prostate cancer risk by race. However, data on hormonal levels related to these characteristics of pregnancy are sparse, particularly those from studies of the fetal circulation.
Estrogen and androgen concentrations were measured in maternal and umbilical cord sera from 86 normal, singleton pregnancies.
Birth size measures (weight, length and head circumference) were positively correlated with maternal estriol (r = 0.25-0.36) and with cord DHEAS concentrations (r = 0.24-0.41), but not with estrogens in cord sera. Maternal age was inversely correlated with maternal DHEAS, androstenedione and testosterone concentrations (r = -0.30, -0.25 and -0.30, respectively), but uncorrelated with estrogens in either the maternal or cord circulation. Black mothers had higher androstenedione and testosterone concentrations than white mothers, however, there were no racial differences in any of the androgens in cord sera. Cord testosterone concentrations were higher in mothers of male fetuses, while both maternal and cord concentrations of estriol were lower in these pregnancies.
These data demonstrate associations between hormone concentrations and pregnancy factors associated with offspring's cancer risk, however, the hormones involved and their patterns of association differ by whether the maternal or fetal circulation was sampled. Hormone concentrations in the fetal circulation in this study are not consistent with the hypothesis that greater estrogen concentrations in high birth weight babies mediate the positive association with breast cancer risk observed in epidemiologic studies, or with the hypothesis that higher testosterone exposure in the in utero environment of black males explains their higher subsequent prostate cancer risk.
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ABSTRACT: Objective To assess the effect of parental age at childbirth on insulin sensitivity and other metabolic outcomes in overweight middle-aged males.Methods We studied 73 men aged 46.0±5.4 years, who were overweight (body mass index, BMI 25-30 kg/m2) but otherwise healthy. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the Matsuda method from an oral glucose tolerance test. Other assessments included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived body composition, lipid profile, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, and carotid intima-media thickness. Maternal and paternal ages were highly correlated (r = 0.71; P < 0.0001), and the main parameter of interest in this study was the mean parental age at childbirth (MPAC), calculated as the average of maternal and paternal ages.ResultsIncreasing MPAC was associated with a continuous increase in insulin sensitivity (β = 0.193; P = 0.008), as well as reductions in insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; β = −0.064; P = 0.011), fasting insulin (β = −0.221; P = 0.018) and fasting glucose (β = −0.030; P = 0.033) concentrations. Increasing MPAC was also associated with reductions in night time systolic (β = −0.500; P = 0.020) and diastolic (β = −0.325; P = 0.047) blood pressure, as well as with improved (greater) nocturnal diastolic blood pressure dipping (β = 0.413; P = 0.046). Subgroup analyses on participants of European descent (n = 64) showed that increasing MPAC was associated with reduced carotid intima-media thickness (β = −0.008; P = 0.018) and lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (β = −0.042; P = 0.028).Conclusions Increasing parental age at childbirth was associated with a more favorable metabolic phenotype in overweight middle-aged males. However, it is unknown whether the effect was maternal, paternal, or both. Future studies on the effects of parental age at childbirth on the metabolism of males and females across the BMI range are required. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 27:380-386, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Human Biology 11/2014; 27(3). DOI:10.1002/ajhb.22654 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background:We aimed to assess whether 2D : 4D measures are associated with breast cancer risk.Methods:We derived the ratio of the lengths of the index and ring fingers (2D : 4D), and right minus left 2D : 4D (Δ(r-l)) from digit lengths measured from photocopies of participants' hands collected during a recent follow-up of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, a prospective study including 24 469 women. Of the 9044 women with available data, we identified 573 incident breast cancer cases. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for a one standard deviation difference in 2D : 4D measures were obtained from Weibull survival models, and linear regression models were used to examine potential associations between 2D : 4D measures and age at menarche and menopause.Results:We found a direct association between left 2D : 4D and breast cancer risk, an inverse association between Δ(r-l) and risk of breast cancer, but no association between right 2D : 4D and breast cancer risk. Among breast cancer cases, both right 2D : 4D and Δ(r-l) were inversely associated with age at diagnosis. We also observed associations between both right 2D : 4D and Δ(r-l) and age at menopause, with increasing digit ratio measures related to earlier mean age at menopause.Conclusion:Digit ratio measures might be associated with breast cancer risk and age at onset of breast cancer. If confirmed in other studies, this suggests that lower exposure or sensitivity to prenatal testosterone might be associated with lower risk of breast cancer.British Journal of Cancer 09/2012; 107(9):1631-6. DOI:10.1038/bjc.2012.418 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Exposure to xenoestrogens occurs against a backdrop to physiological levels of endogenous estrogens. Endogenous estrogen levels vary from low levels in early childhood to high levels during pregnancy and in young women. However, few studies have addressed how xenoestrogens interact with endogenous estrogens. The current study was designed to characterize the individual dose-response curves of estradiol-17beta (E(2)), bisphenol A (BPA), tetrabromo-bisphenol A (TBBPA), and bisphenol AF (BPAF, 4,4'-hexafluoroisopropylidene diphenol) on estrogen-dependent luciferase expression in T47D-KBluc cells and to determine how binary (8 x 8 factorial) and ternary (4 x 4 x 4 factorial) mixtures of an endogenous estrogen (E(2)) interact with BPA and/or BPAF. Log EC(50) and hillslope values with SEs, respectively, for individual compounds were as follows: E(2), -12.10M +/- 0.06071, 0.7702 +/- 0.1739; BPA, -6.679M +/- 0.08505, 1.194 +/- 0.2137; and BPAF, -7.648M +/- 0.05527, 1.273 +/- 0.1739. TBBPA was not evaluated in mixture studies because of its minimally estrogenic response at 3 x10(-5)M and elicited cytotoxicity at higher concentrations. Both the binary mixtures of E(2) with BPA and BPAF and the ternary mixture of E(2), BPA, and BPAF behaved in an additive manner. For binary mixtures, as E(2) concentration increased, higher concentrations of BPA and BPAF were necessary to induce a significant increase in the estrogenic response. Understanding the behavior of mixture interactions of xenoestrogens, like BPA and BPAF, with endogenous estrogens will allow a better assessment of the potential risk associated with exposure to these chemicals, individually or as mixtures.Toxicological Sciences 05/2010; 116(2):477-87. DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfq156 · 4.48 Impact Factor