Associations of maternal and umbilical cord hormone concentrations with maternal, gestational and neonatal factors (United States).
ABSTRACT Risks of some cancers in adults have been associated with several pregnancy factors, including greater maternal age and birth weight. For hormone-related cancers, these effects are hypothesized to be mediated through higher in utero estrogen concentrations. In addition, racial differences in pregnancy hormone levels have been suggested as being responsible for differences in testicular and prostate cancer risk by race. However, data on hormonal levels related to these characteristics of pregnancy are sparse, particularly those from studies of the fetal circulation.
Estrogen and androgen concentrations were measured in maternal and umbilical cord sera from 86 normal, singleton pregnancies.
Birth size measures (weight, length and head circumference) were positively correlated with maternal estriol (r = 0.25-0.36) and with cord DHEAS concentrations (r = 0.24-0.41), but not with estrogens in cord sera. Maternal age was inversely correlated with maternal DHEAS, androstenedione and testosterone concentrations (r = -0.30, -0.25 and -0.30, respectively), but uncorrelated with estrogens in either the maternal or cord circulation. Black mothers had higher androstenedione and testosterone concentrations than white mothers, however, there were no racial differences in any of the androgens in cord sera. Cord testosterone concentrations were higher in mothers of male fetuses, while both maternal and cord concentrations of estriol were lower in these pregnancies.
These data demonstrate associations between hormone concentrations and pregnancy factors associated with offspring's cancer risk, however, the hormones involved and their patterns of association differ by whether the maternal or fetal circulation was sampled. Hormone concentrations in the fetal circulation in this study are not consistent with the hypothesis that greater estrogen concentrations in high birth weight babies mediate the positive association with breast cancer risk observed in epidemiologic studies, or with the hypothesis that higher testosterone exposure in the in utero environment of black males explains their higher subsequent prostate cancer risk.
SourceAvailable from: Benjamin B Albert[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To assess the effect of parental age at childbirth on insulin sensitivity and other metabolic outcomes in overweight middle-aged males.American Journal of Human Biology 11/2014; DOI:10.1002/ajhb.22654 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ratio of second digit length to fourth digit length (2D:4D) has been extensively used in human and experimental research as a marker of fetal sex steroid exposure. However, very few human studies have measured the direct relationship between fetal androgen or estrogen concentrations and digit ratio.Early Human Development 02/2015; 91(2). DOI:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2014.12.011 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Context: Telomere biology plays a fundamental role in genomic integrity, cellular regeneration, physiology, aging, disease risk and mortality. The initial setting of telomere length (TL) in early life has important implications for telomere maintenance and related disorders throughout the lifespan. However, little is known about the predictors of this initial setting. Objective: Given the established role of estrogen on adult TL and the role of estriol (E3) in the context of fetal development, the goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that higher maternal E3 concentration during early pregnancy is associated with longer infant telomere length. Design, Participants and Setting: Study participants comprised a cohort of N=100 infants followed prospectively from intrauterine life and birth through early childhood from a population-based, representative sample of pregnant mothers recruited in early pregnancy at university-based obstetric clinics in Southern California. Maternal unconjugated plasma (E3) concentrations were assessed in plasma in early gestation (around week 15). Infant TL was assessed in buccal cells at approximately 15 months age. Results: After accounting for the effects of potential confounding maternal and infant variables, there was a significant, independent effect of maternal E3 concentration on infant TL (unstandardized β = 0.297, p=0.001; 95% Cl: 0.121 - 0.473). Specifically, a 1 multiple-of-the-median (MoM) increase in maternal E3 concentration during early pregnancy was associated with a 14.42% increase in infant TL. Conclusions: This study supports the concept of developmental plasticity of the telomere biology system and highlights specifically the role of a potentially modifiable intrauterine factor for further mechanistic and clinical investigation.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10/2014; 100(1):jc20142744. DOI:10.1210/jc.2014-2744 · 6.31 Impact Factor