Troisi R, Potischman N, Roberts JM, Siiteri P, Hoover RNAssociations of maternal and umbilical cord hormone concentrations with maternal, gestational and neonatal factors. Cancer Causes Control 14: 347-355
Risks of some cancers in adults have been associated with several pregnancy factors, including greater maternal age and birth weight. For hormone-related cancers, these effects are hypothesized to be mediated through higher in utero estrogen concentrations. In addition, racial differences in pregnancy hormone levels have been suggested as being responsible for differences in testicular and prostate cancer risk by race. However, data on hormonal levels related to these characteristics of pregnancy are sparse, particularly those from studies of the fetal circulation.
Estrogen and androgen concentrations were measured in maternal and umbilical cord sera from 86 normal, singleton pregnancies.
Birth size measures (weight, length and head circumference) were positively correlated with maternal estriol (r = 0.25-0.36) and with cord DHEAS concentrations (r = 0.24-0.41), but not with estrogens in cord sera. Maternal age was inversely correlated with maternal DHEAS, androstenedione and testosterone concentrations (r = -0.30, -0.25 and -0.30, respectively), but uncorrelated with estrogens in either the maternal or cord circulation. Black mothers had higher androstenedione and testosterone concentrations than white mothers, however, there were no racial differences in any of the androgens in cord sera. Cord testosterone concentrations were higher in mothers of male fetuses, while both maternal and cord concentrations of estriol were lower in these pregnancies.
These data demonstrate associations between hormone concentrations and pregnancy factors associated with offspring's cancer risk, however, the hormones involved and their patterns of association differ by whether the maternal or fetal circulation was sampled. Hormone concentrations in the fetal circulation in this study are not consistent with the hypothesis that greater estrogen concentrations in high birth weight babies mediate the positive association with breast cancer risk observed in epidemiologic studies, or with the hypothesis that higher testosterone exposure in the in utero environment of black males explains their higher subsequent prostate cancer risk.
"Increasing maternal age is associated with changes in gonadotrophins (Ebbiary et al., 1994) and sex steroids (Panagiotopoulou et al., 1990; Troisi et al., 2003). Such maternal hormonal changes have been associated with alterations in postnatal growth (Wang and vom Saal, 2000) and metabolism (Crespi et al., 2006) in offspring. "
"Unlike androgens, umbilical cord estrogen concentrations do not consistently differ significantly between males and females. Studies have reported inconsistent results including no sex differences (24, 25, 28, 32, 33, 35), higher estrogen concentrations in females (36), and higher estrogen concentrations in males (16, 37). The lack of consistent sex differences in estrogen concentrations is biologically and clinically significant. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurately measuring hormone exposure during prenatal life presents a methodological challenge and there is currently no "gold standard" approach. Ideally, circulating fetal hormone levels would be measured at repeated time points during pregnancy. However, it is not currently possible to obtain fetal blood samples without significant risk to the fetus, and therefore surrogate markers of fetal hormone levels must be utilized. Umbilical cord blood can be readily obtained at birth and largely reflects fetal circulation in late gestation. This review examines the accuracy and biological interpretation of the measurement of androgens and estrogens in cord blood. The use of cord blood hormones to understand and investigate human development is then discussed.
Frontiers in Endocrinology 05/2014; 5:64. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2014.00064
"The in utero milieu of black males is different from that of whites. Black women have higher maternal testosterone levels than white women.43 Additionally, a short CAG repeat length on the androgen receptor gene, which is related to high activity of androgen receptor, was associated with African-American rather than white men.44 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sex and sex hormones play a major role in lung physiology. It has been proposed that the ratio of the second to fourth digits (digit ratio) is correlated with fetal sex hormones. We therefore hypothesized that digit ratio might help predict lung function. We investigated the relationship between digit ratio and pulmonary function test (PFT) fi ndings. A total of 245 South Korean patients (162 male, 83 female) aged from 34 to 90 years who were hospitalized for urological surgery were prospectively enrolled. Before administering the PFTs, the lengths of the second and fourth digits of the right hand were measured by a single investigator using a digital Vernier caliper. In males (n = 162), univariate and multivariate analysis using linear regression models showed that digit ratio was a signifi cant predictive factor of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (FVC: r = 0.156, P = 0.047; FEV1: r = 0.160, P = 0.042). In male ever-smokers (n = 69), lung functions (FVC and FEV1) were correlated with smoking exposure rather than digit ratio. In female never-smokers (n = 83), lung functions (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio) were positively correlated with digit ratio on univariate analysis (FEV1: r = 0.242, P = 0.027; FEV1/FVC ratio: r = 0.245, P = 0.026). Patients with lower digit ratios tend to have decreased lung function. These results suggest that digit ratio is a predictor of airway function.
Asian Journal of Andrology 01/2014; 16(1):140-5. DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.122195 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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