Use of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the management of locally recurrent rectal cancer.

Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
Diseases of the Colon & Rectum (Impact Factor: 3.34). 08/2003; 46(7):895-9. DOI: 10.1097/01.DCR.0000075320.52257.25
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Locally recurrent rectal cancer is associated with poor quality of life and has justified aggressive surgical and adjuvant approaches to control the disease. This study was designed to evaluate the use of fractionated perioperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy in association with wide surgical excision (debulking). Our hypothesis is that this combined therapy can help control locally recurrent rectal cancer.
Patients with biopsy-proven locally recurrent rectal cancer that could not be completely removed surgically were considered candidates for this procedure. All patients had abdominal exploration, aggressive tumor debulking, and placement of afterloading brachytherapy catheters. Patients underwent simulation on postoperative Day 3 and received 1,200 to 2,500 (mean, 1,888) cGy of fractionated high-dose-rate brachytherapy between postoperative Days 3 and 5. All patients had involvement of the lateral pelvic sidewall and/or the sacrum.
Twenty-seven patients (18 males) aged 32 to 79 years underwent therapy. Follow-up ranged from 18 to 93 (mean, 50) months and was available in 27 patients. Ten patients (37 percent) were alive at the time of this report. Nine patients are without evidence of disease. Five patients (18 percent) died of non-cancer-related causes without evidence of recurrent disease. Five complications potentially related to treatment (3 abscesses, 2 fistulas) occurred in five patients.
High-dose radiation brachytherapy delivers high-dose, highly controlled, focused radiation to specific sites of disease, thereby minimizing injury to normal tissues. The results in this series suggest increased local control, better palliation, and increased salvage of patients.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Palliation of obstructive colon cancer is often challenging. Treatment options include Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser, stent placement, and surgical intervention. High-dose-rate intraluminal brachytherapy (HDRILBT) has been used to relieve obstructive symptoms due to rectal, bronchial, and esophageal cancers. In this case report, we document the combined use of YAG laser and HDRILBT for the palliation of obstructive colon cancer at the hepatic flexure, not previously reported in the literature. The patient in this case report had a large colonic tumor at the hepatic flexure causing near complete obstruction. Stent insertion and surgery were not feasible. YAG laser was used once and 11 days later, two fractions of HDRILBT were given 1 week apart. Under endoscopic vision and fluoroscopic guidance, a 150-cm Teflon catheter was passed through the lumen of the partially obstructed bowel for purposes of HDRILBT. A total dose of 10Gy was delivered at 1cm from the center of the source axis using a high-dose-rate afterloader. After treatment with the first fraction of HDRILBT, the tumor size decreased and the colonic lumen was significantly more patent. The patient's symptoms were significantly relieved after two fractions. Her weight increased and she was medically fit enough to undergo further chemotherapy. Further HDRILBT was not indicated. The calculated biological effective dose for the total HDRILBT treatments was well below the dose tolerances for acute effects for normal colonic tissue. HDRILBT should be considered as a possible treatment option for obstructive colon cancers when stent placement or surgery is not possible.
    Brachytherapy 03/2009; 8(3):313-7. · 1.22 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A literature review has been made on the pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer using the MedLine, Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane and Cinahl data bases. Assessment of the locoregional recurrence must be made using imaging tests in order to rule out the presence of metastasis, as well as for locating its exact location within the pelvis. As the only curative treatment should be complete resection of the recurrence with negative margins, a pre-operative CT, NMR, endorectal ultrasound and PET-CT must be performed to determine its resectability. For a potential cure, radical resections must be made, with the technique varying according to whether the location is central (axial), posterior (presacral) or lateral, as well as treatment directed at the primary tumour. Neoadjuvant treatments, brachiterapy and intra-operative radiotherapy improve the local control results and survival in these patients.
    Cirugía Española 03/2011; 89(5):269-74. · 0.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions. These Criteria are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The development and review of these guidelines includes an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.Local recurrence of rectal cancer can result in devastating symptoms for patients, including intractable pain and discharge. Prior treatment can limit subsequent treatment options. Preoperative 5-FU based chemoradiotherapy is the treatment of choice for patients with a local recurrence who did not receive adjuvant therapy after initial resection or who might have received chemotherapy alone. Chemoradiotherapy followed by evaluation for surgery is the preferred treatment for patients who have undergone previous radiotherapy after surgery. The inclusion of surgery has resulted in the best outcomes in a majority of studies. Palliative chemoradiotherapy is appropriate for patients who have received previous radiotherapy whose recurrent disease is considered inoperable. Radiotherapy can be delivered on a standard or hyperfractionated treatment schedule.Newer systemic treatments have improved response rates and given physicians more options for treating patients in this difficult situation. The use of induction chemotherapy prior to radiotherapy is an evolving treatment option. Specialized treatment modalities should be used at institutions with experience in these techniques and preferably in patients enrolled in clinical trials.
    Gastrointestinal cancer research: GCR 01/2012; 5(1):3-12.