Che-1 arrests human colon carcinoma cell proliferation by displacing HDAC1 from the p21WAF1/CIP1 promoter.
ABSTRACT Che-1 is a recently identified human RNA polymerase II binding protein involved in the regulation of gene transcription and cell proliferation. We previously demonstrated that Che-1 inhibits the Rb growth-suppressing function by interfering with Rb-mediated HDAC1 recruitment on E2F target gene promoters. By hybridization of cancer profile arrays, we found that Che-1 expression is strongly down-regulated in several tumors, including colon and kidney carcinomas, compared with the relative normal tissues. Consistent with these data, Che-1 overexpression inhibits proliferation of HCT116 and LoVo human colon carcinoma cell lines by activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/Cip1 in a p53-independent manner and by promoting growth arrest at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Che-1 activates p21WAF1/Cip1 by displacing histone deacetylase (HDAC)1 from the Sp1 binding sites of the p21WAF1/Cip1 gene promoter and accumulating acetylated histone H3 on these sites. Accordingly, Che-1-specific RNA interference negatively affects p21WAF1/Cip1 transactivation and increases cell proliferation in HCT116 cells. Taken together, our results indicate that Che-1 can be considered a general HDAC1 competitor and its down-regulation is involved in colon carcinoma cell proliferation.
Article: Sumoylation of specificity protein 1 augments its degradation by changing the localization and increasing the specificity protein 1 proteolytic process.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although specificity protein 1 (Sp1) accumulation has been found in various tumor strains, its mechanism is still not very clear. Herein, we found that modification of Sp1 by SUMO-1 facilitates Sp1 degradation. Our findings revealed that, although the amounts of Sp1 and Sp1 mutant (K16R) [Sp1(K16R)] mRNA in cells were equal, the protein level of Sp1(K16R) was higher than that of wild-type Sp1. We also proved that this sumoylation site was not the residue at which ubiquitination occurred. Invitro and in vivo pull-down assays revealed that more sumoylated Sp1 was localized in the cytoplasm, and the interaction between SUMO-1-Sp1 and the proteasome subunit rpt6 in HeLa cells was enhanced. In addition, although Sp1 accumulated in the tumorous cervical tissue, it was not prone to sumoylation. Finally, by overexpression of HA (hemagglutinin)-SUMO-1-Sp1-myc, HA-Sp1-myc, and HA-Sp1(K16R), we found that modification of Sp1 by SUMO-1 was important for Sp1 proteolysis. In conclusion, modification of Sp1 by SUMO-1 altered its localization and then increased its interaction with rpt6. This interaction increased the efficiency of Sp1 proteolytic processing and ubiquitination and then resulted in Sp1 degradation. Therefore, sumoylation of Sp1 is attenuated during tumorigenesis in order to increase Sp1 stability.Journal of Molecular Biology 08/2008; 380(5):869-85. · 4.00 Impact Factor