Identifying and tracking neural stem cells.
ABSTRACT Hematopoietic stem cells, unlike neural stem cells, can be readily identified and isolated from developing and adult cell populations using positive and negative selection criteria. Isolating stem cells and progenitor cells from neural tissue has been more difficult because of difficulties in separating cells in solid tissue, the limited numbers of stem cells that persist in the adult, and the paucity of rigorously characterized markers. Nevertheless, strategies that have worked successfully in hematopoietic stem cell isolation can be adapted to isolate multiple classes of stem and progenitor cells from neural tissue. Neural stem cells also share cellular and molecular properties with other stem cell populations that may serve as surrogate identifiers of multipotentiality. Such potential markers are described. Unlike hematopoietic stem cells, tracking neural cells after transplantation is both necessary and more difficult. It will therefore be necessary to develop invasive and non-invasive strategies to follow transplanted cells and develop useful quantifiable readouts. Some potential strategies are described and current results are discussed.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the past few years research on stem cells has exploded as a tool to develop potential therapies to treat incurable neurodegenerative diseases. Stem cell transplantation has been effective in several animal models, but the underlying restorative mechanisms are still unknown. Several events such as cell fusion, neurotrophic factor release, endogenous stem cell proliferation, and transdifferentiation (adult cell acquisition of new unexpected identities) may explain therapeutic success, in addition to replacement of lost cells. This issue needs to be clarified further to maximize the potential for effective therapies. Preliminary stem transplantation trials have already been performed for some neurodegenerative diseases. There is no effective pharmacological treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but recent preliminary data both in experimental and clinical settings have targeted it as an ideal candidate disease for the development of stem cell therapy in humans. This review summarizes recent advances gained in stem cell research applied to neurodegenerative diseases with a special emphasis to the criticisms put forward.Stem Cells and Development 03/2004; 13(1):121-31. · 4.46 Impact Factor
Chapter: Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine12/2007: pages 905-916;