Early and long-term clinical outcomes associated with reinfarction following fibrinolytic administration in the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction trials.
ABSTRACT We hypothesized that early recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) following fibrinolytic administration would be assessed with higher mortality at both 30 days and 2 years.
Although early recurrent MI after fibrinolytic therapy has been associated with increased early mortality in the acute MI setting, its relation to long-term mortality has not been fully explored.
Mortality data were ascertained in 20,101 patients enrolled in the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 4, 9, and 10B and Intravenous NPA for the Treatment of Infarcting Myocardium Early (InTIME-II) acute MI trials.
The frequency of symptomatic recurrent MI during the index hospitalization was 4.2% (836/20,101). Recurrent MI during the index hospital period was associated with increased 30-day mortality (16.4% [137/836] vs. 6.2% [1,188/19,260], p < 0.001). Likewise, recurrent MI was associated with a sustained increase in mortality up to two years, even after adjustments were made for covariates known to be associated with mortality and recurrent MI (hazard ratio 2.11, p < 0.001). However, this higher mortality at 2 years was due to an early divergence in mortality by 30 days and was not due to a significant increase in late mortality between 30 days and 2 years (4.38% [31/707] vs. 3.76% [685/18,206], p = NS). Percutaneous coronary intervention during the index hospitalization was associated with a lower rate of in-hospital recurrent MI (1.6% vs. 4.5%, p < 0.001) and lower two-year mortality (5.6% vs. 11.6%, p < 0.001). Performance of coronary artery bypass graft surgery was also associated with a lower recurrent rate of MI (0.7% vs. 4.3%, p < 0.001) and lower two-year mortality rate (7.95% vs. 10.6%, p = 0.0008).
Early recurrent MI is associated with increased mortality up to two years. However, most deaths occur early, and the risk of additional deaths between the index hospital period and two years was not significantly increased among patients with recurrent MI. Percutaneous coronary intervention during the index hospitalization was associated with a lower risk of recurrent MI and a lower risk of two-year mortality.
Article: The impact of preoperative thrombolysis on long-term survival after coronary artery bypass grafting.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is frequently used after thrombolytic therapy. However, there is little information regarding long-term survival in this setting. The purpose of the present study was to compare the long-term survival of patients subjected to CABG after thrombolysis to those without thrombolysis. We studied 3760 consecutive patients with isolated CABG between 1992 and 2002. CABG patients without thrombolysis were compared with those who were treated with thrombolysis within 7 days before CABG. Groups were compared by Cox proportional hazard models and Kaplan-Meier survival plots. The propensity for thrombolysis was determined by logistic regression analysis, and each patient with thrombolysis was then matched to 5 patients without thrombolysis. One hundred ninety-six patients (5.2%) were treated with thrombolysis. Patients with thrombolysis were more likely to be male, younger, and with higher rates of unstable angina, emergency operation, recent or transmural myocardial infarction, preoperative intraaortic balloon pump, hemodynamic instability, shock, intravenous nitroglycerine, left-ventricular hypertrophy, sustained ventricular arrhythmia, and higher EuroSCORE. There were no differences in early outcome between matched groups, but the 5-year actuarial survival was higher in patients with thrombolysis (90.3+/-2.2% versus 78.5+/-1.6%; P=0.0007). After adjustment for all factors, the hazard ratio of long-term mortality for patients with thrombolysis was 0.54 (95% CI, 0.36 to 0.81; P=0.003) and, if deaths during the first 12 months were excluded, 0.46 (95% CI, 0.27 to 0.76; P=0.003). Patients subjected to CABG within 7 days after thrombolysis demonstrated increased long-term survival.Circulation 09/2005; 112(9 Suppl):I351-7. · 14.74 Impact Factor
Revista española de cardiología, ISSN 0300-8932, Vol. 58, Nº. 6, 2005, pags. 679-728.
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ABSTRACT: Ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury causes endothelium-dependent vasomotor dysfunction that can be prevented by ischaemic preconditioning. The effects of IR injury and preconditioning on endothelium-dependent tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) release, an important mediator of endogenous fibrinolysis, remain unknown. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury (limb occlusion at 200 mmHg for 20 min) was induced in 22 healthy subjects. In 12 subjects, IR injury was preceded by local or remote ischaemic preconditioning (three 5 min episodes of ipsilateral or contralateral limb occlusion, respectively) or sham in a randomized, cross-over trial. Forearm blood flow (FBF) and endothelial t-PA release were assessed using venous occlusion plethysmography and venous blood sampling during intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine (5-20 µg/min) or substance P (2-8 pmol/min). Acetylcholine and substance P caused dose-dependent increases in FBF (P<0.05 for all). Substance P caused a dose-dependent increase in t-PA release (P<0.05 for all). Acetylcholine and substanceP-mediated vasodilatation and substanceP-mediated t-PA release were impaired following IR injury (P<0.05 for all). Neither local nor remote ischaemic preconditioning protected against the impairment of substance P-mediated vasodilatation or t-PA release. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury induced substanceP-mediated, endothelium-dependent vasomotor and fibrinolytic dysfunction in man that could not be prevented by ischaemic preconditioning. Clinical Trial Registration Information: Reference number: NCT00789243, URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00789243?term=NCT00789243&rank=1.European Heart Journal 10/2011; 33(15):1920-7. · 10.48 Impact Factor