Syndecan-3 modulates food intake by interacting with the melanocortin/AgRP pathway.
ABSTRACT Syndecan-3, expressed in the developing nervous system and adult brain, alters feeding behavior through its interaction with the CNS melanocortin system, which provides critical tonic inhibition of both food intake and body adipose stores. A variety of both in vitro and transgenic data supports the hypothesis that syndecan-3 modulates melanocortin activity via syndecan-3 facilitation of agouti-related protein (AgRP), a competitive antagonist of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) at the melanocortin-3 and -4 receptors. Consistent with this hypothesis, mice lacking syndecan-3, which therefore would be predicted to have less effective AgRP, are more sensitive to inhibition of food intake by the melanocortin agonist MTII. Additionally, we took advantage of the fact that syndecan-3 facilitation of AgRP is limited to when it is bound to the cell membrane. Pharmacologic inhibition of the enzyme that cleaves syndecan-3 from the cell membrane leads to increased food intake in fasted rats, which have elevated levels of AgRP. Furthermore, the shedding process appears to be regulated under physiologic conditions, because a putative inhibitor of the shedding process, tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-3 (TIMP-3), is increased by food deprivation. These observations contribute to the hypothesis that syndecan-3 regulation of melanocortin signaling contributes to the normal control of energy balance. Collectively, the data suggest that the modulation of melanocortin regulation of energy balance by syndecan-3 is modulated by the action of a TIMP-3-sensitive metalloprotease.
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Article: Heparan sulfate proteoglycans.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where they interact with a plethora of ligands. Over the last decade, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanism and biological significance of these interactions. Here, we discuss changing views on the specificity of protein-heparan sulfate binding and the activity of HSPGs as receptors and coreceptors. Although few in number, heparan sulfate proteoglycans have profound effects at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level.Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 06/2011; 3(7). DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a004952 · 8.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and several types of cancers. The hypothalamus is a region of the brain critical in the regulation of body weight. One of the critical and best studied hypothalamic circuits is comprised of the melanocortinergic orexigenic agouti-related protein (AgRP) and anorexigenic α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) neurons. These neurons project axons to the same hypothalamic target neurons and balance each other's activity leading to body weight regulation. We previously showed that the brain proteoglycan syndecan-3 regulates feeding behavior and body weight, and syndecan-3 null (SDC-3(-/-)) mice are lean and obesity resistant. Here we show that the melanocortin agonist Melanotan II (MTII) potently suppresses food intake and activates the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in SDC-3(-/-) mice based on c-fos immunoreactivity. Interestingly, we determined that the AgRP neuropeptide is reduced in the PVN of SDC-3(-/-) mice compared to wild type mice. In contrast, neuropeptide Y, coexpressed in the AgRP neuron, is not differentially expressed nor is the counteracting neuropeptide α-MSH. These findings are unprecedented and indicate that AgRP protein localization can be selectively regulated within the hypothalamus resulting in altered neuropeptide response and tone.Neuroscience 10/2010; 171(4):1032-40. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.09.060 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neuroglycan C (NGC) is a transmembrane-type of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like module that is exclusively expressed in the CNS. Because ectodomain shedding is a common processing step for many transmembrane proteins, we examined whether NGC was subjected to proteolytic cleavage. Western blotting demonstrated the occurrence of a soluble form of NGC with a 75 kDa core glycoprotein in the soluble fraction of the young rat cerebrum. In contrast, full-length NGC with a 120 kDa core glycoprotein and its cytoplasmic fragment with a molecular size of 35 kDa could be detected in the membrane fraction. The soluble form of NGC was also detectable in culture media of fetal rat neurons, and the full-length form existed in cell layers. The amount of the soluble form in culture media was decreased by adding a physiological protease inhibitor such as a tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 or TIMP-3, but not by adding TIMP-1. Both EGF-like and neurite outgrowth-promoting activity of the NGC ectodomain may be regulated by this proteolytic processing.Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2007; 102(5):1561-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.04658.x · 4.24 Impact Factor