A thymidine analogue bearing a methyl ester at the C5 position was accepted as a substrate by the thermophilic family B DNA polymerases, KOD Dash, Pwo, and Vent(exo-), to form the corresponding PCR product, but not by the thermophilic family A DNA polymerases, Taq, Tth, and T7 thermosequenase. Modified DNA containing this analogue was prepared by PCR on a large scale with KOD Dash DNA polymerase and 5(methoxycarbonylmethyl)-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate as a substrate. The methyl ester of the modified DNA was further allowed to react with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine or histamine by an ester-amide exchange reaction to form the corresponding derivatized DNA bearing a tris(2-aminoethyl)amine or histamine moiety. Hydrolysis of the methyl ester of the modified DNA gave a functionalized DNA bearing an anionic carboxyl group. The derivatized DNA could act as a template for the PCR with KOD Dash DNA polymerase and the natural 2'-deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate or the modified thymidine analogue as a substrate. The postsynthetic derivatization of the modified DNA may expand the variety of structurally modified DNA produced by PCR.
"The presence of a charge near the nucleobase decreased the yield of the PCR products. Our previous study showed that the analog TME, which has no charge on the modified group, acts as a good substrate for PCR catalyzed by KOD Dash, whereas 5-(2-hydroxy-2-oxoethyl)-dUTP, which has a negative charge on the modified group, does not (30). Therefore, the amount of PCR products is decreased by either a negative or positive charge on the modified group. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We synthesized C5-modified analogs of 2'-deoxyuridine triphosphate and 2'-deoxycytidine triphosphate and investigated them as substrates for PCRs using Taq, Tth, Vent(exo-), KOD Dash and KOD(exo-) polymerases and pUC 18 plasmid DNA as a template. These assays were performed on two different amplifying regions of pUC18 with different T/C contents that are expected to have relatively high barriers for incorporation of either modified dU or dC. On the basis of 260 different assays (26 modified triphosphates x 5 DNA polymerases x 2 amplifying regions), it appears that generation of the full-length PCR product depends not only on the chemical structures of the substitution and the nature of the polymerase but also on whether the substitution is on dU or dC. Furthermore, the template sequence greatly affected generation of the PCR product, depending on the combination of the DNA polymerase and modified triphosphate. By examining primer extension reactions using primers and templates containing C5-modified dUs, we found that a modified dU at the 3' end of the elongation strand greatly affects the catalytic efficiency of DNA polymerases, whereas a modified dU opposite the elongation site on the template strand has less of an influence on the catalytic efficiency.
Nucleic Acids Research 02/2006; 34(19):5383-94. DOI:10.1093/nar/gkl637 · 9.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synthetic oligonucleotides are contaminated with highly homologous failure sequences. Oligonucleotide synthesis is difficult to scale up because it requires expensive equipments, hazardous chemicals, and tedious purification process. Here we report a novel thermocyclic reaction, polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction (PEAR), for the amplification of oligonucleotides. A target oligonucleotide and a tandem repeated antisense probe are subjected to repeated cycles of denaturing, annealing, elongation and cleaving, in which thermostable DNA polymerase elongation and strand slipping generate duplex tandem repeats, and thermostable endonuclease (PspGI) cleavage releases monomeric duplex oligonucleotides. Each round of PEAR achieves >100-fold amplification. The product can be used in one more round of PEAR directly, and the process can be further repeated. In addition to avoiding dangerous materials and improved product purity, this reaction is easy to scale up and amenable to full automation, so it has the potential to be a useful tool for large-scale production of antisense oligonucleotide drugs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Up to eight modifications could be incorporated into a DNA heteroduplex (see picture) by introducing different sets of 2′-deoxynucleotide derivatives through DNA polymerase mediated primer extension. All four natural nucleobases in each strand were substituted with different base-modified analogues. PCR conditions are described that allow the direct amplification of fully functionalized DNA double strands.
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