Modified DNA Bearing 5(Methoxycarbonylmethyl)-2′-deoxyuridine: Preparation by PCR with Thermophilic DNA Polymerase and Postsynthetic Derivatization
ABSTRACT A thymidine analogue bearing a methyl ester at the C5 position was accepted as a substrate by the thermophilic family B DNA polymerases, KOD Dash, Pwo, and Vent(exo-), to form the corresponding PCR product, but not by the thermophilic family A DNA polymerases, Taq, Tth, and T7 thermosequenase. Modified DNA containing this analogue was prepared by PCR on a large scale with KOD Dash DNA polymerase and 5(methoxycarbonylmethyl)-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate as a substrate. The methyl ester of the modified DNA was further allowed to react with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine or histamine by an ester-amide exchange reaction to form the corresponding derivatized DNA bearing a tris(2-aminoethyl)amine or histamine moiety. Hydrolysis of the methyl ester of the modified DNA gave a functionalized DNA bearing an anionic carboxyl group. The derivatized DNA could act as a template for the PCR with KOD Dash DNA polymerase and the natural 2'-deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate or the modified thymidine analogue as a substrate. The postsynthetic derivatization of the modified DNA may expand the variety of structurally modified DNA produced by PCR.
- SourceAvailable from: Xiaolong Wang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Synthetic oligonucleotides are contaminated with highly homologous failure sequences. Oligonucleotide synthesis is difficult to scale up because it requires expensive equipments, hazardous chemicals, and tedious purification process. Here we report a novel thermocyclic reaction, polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction (PEAR), for the amplification of oligonucleotides. A target oligonucleotide and a tandem repeated antisense probe are subjected to repeated cycles of denaturing, annealing, elongation and cleaving, in which thermostable DNA polymerase elongation and strand slipping generate duplex tandem repeats, and thermostable endonuclease (PspGI) cleavage releases monomeric duplex oligonucleotides. Each round of PEAR achieves >100-fold amplification. The product can be used in one more round of PEAR directly, and the process can be further repeated. In addition to avoiding dangerous materials and improved product purity, this reaction is easy to scale up and amenable to full automation, so it has the potential to be a useful tool for large-scale production of antisense oligonucleotide drugs.
- Angewandte Chemie International Edition 03/2005; 44(14):2144-8. DOI:10.1002/anie.200461143 · 11.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To broaden the applicability of chemically modified DNAs in nano- and biotechnology, material science, sensor development, and molecular recognition, strategies are required for introducing a large variety of different modifications into the same nucleic acid sequence at once. Here, we investigate the scope and limits for obtaining functionalized dsDNA by primer extension and PCR, using a broad variety of chemically modified deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs), DNA polymerases, and templates. All natural nucleobases in each strand were substituted with up to four different base-modified analogues. We studied the sequence dependence of enzymatic amplification to yield high-density functionalized DNA (fDNA) from modified dNTPs, and of fDNA templates, and found that GC-rich sequences are amplified with decreased efficiency as compared to AT-rich ones. There is also a strong dependence on the polymerase used. While family A polymerases generally performed poorly on "demanding" templates containing consecutive stretches of a particular base, family B polymerases were better suited for this purpose, in particular Pwo and Vent (exo-) DNA polymerase. A systematic analysis of fDNAs modified at increasing densities by CD spectroscopy revealed that single modified bases do not alter the overall B-type DNA structure, regardless of their chemical nature. A density of three modified bases induces conformational changes in the double helix, reflected by an inversion of the CD spectra. Our study provides a basis for establishing a generally applicable toolbox of enzymes, templates, and monomers for generating high-density functionalized DNAs for a broad range of applications.Journal of the American Chemical Society 12/2005; 127(43):15071-82. DOI:10.1021/ja051725b · 11.44 Impact Factor