Cognitive and somatic symptoms of depression are associated with medical comorbidity in patients after acute myocardial infarction
ABSTRACT Depression is common in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and is associated with adverse health outcomes. However, the extent to which clinical depression is related to comorbid medical conditions is unknown. This study examined the degree of association between clinical depression and medical comorbidity in patients hospitalized with AMI.
Two thousand four hundred and eighty-one depressed or socially isolated patients with AMI were enrolled, as part of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease clinical trial. A structured interview was used to diagnose major and minor depression and dysthymia; severity of depression was measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Beck Depression Inventory. Level of social support was measured by the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument. A modified version of the Charlson Comorbidity Index was used to measure the cumulative burden of medical comorbidity.
The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for having major depression increased linearly with medical comorbidity (ORs 1.6, 2.2, 2.7 for each increasing medical comorbidity category). This relationship remained after adjusting for coronary heart disease severity (ORs 1.4, 1.7, 1.9, P <.001). The relationship between severity of depression and medical comorbidity was also maintained after excluding somatic symptoms of depression (F = 21.5, P <.0001).
Patients with AMI and clinical depression have significantly greater levels of medical comorbidity than nondepressed, socially isolated patients. Further research is needed to determine whether comorbid medical illness contributes to the more frequent rehospitalizations and increased risk of mortality associated with depression.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Self-reported depressive symptoms and clinical depression after myocardial infarction (MI) are both associated with poor cardiac prognosis. It is important to distinguish between the two when assessing cardiac prognosis, but few studies have done so. The present article evaluates the independent prognostic impact of self-reported depressive symptoms and clinical depression on cardiac outcomes after MI. METHODS: 2704 MI-patients were administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and underwent the Composite International Diagnostic Interview at 3months post-MI. All-cause mortality, cardiac mortality and cardiovascular readmissions were evaluated up till 10years post-MI (mean: 6years), representing 16,783 persons-years of follow-up. Event-free survival was evaluated using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Analyses on mortality and cardiovascular readmissions included 2493 and 2434 patients respectively. Compared to patients scoring <5 on the BDI, those scoring ≥19 had age- and sex-adjusted HR's (95% CI) of 3.20 (2.16-4.74, p<0.001) for all-cause mortality, 3.97 (2.06-7.65, p<0.001) for cardiac mortality, and 1.45 (1.08-1.95, p<0.05) for cardiovascular readmissions. Cardiac disease severity and cardiac risk factors explained one third to half of the relationship. The presence of clinical depression was associated with all-cause (HR: 1.72 (1.29-2.30, p<0.001)) and cardiac mortality (HR: 1.67 (1.01-2.77, p<0.05)). However, adjusting for BDI-scores decreased these HR's with 53% and 72% respectively, rendering them non-significant. Dichotomized BDI-scores remained to predict cardiac prognosis independently from the presence of clinical depression. CONCLUSIONS: After MI, self-reported depressive symptoms are a more accurate predictor of cardiac morbidity and mortality than clinical depression. This association is confounded largely by cardiac disease severity.International journal of cardiology 07/2012; 167(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.07.002 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Depression after myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with poor cardiovascular prognosis. There is some evidence that specifically depressive episodes that develop after the acute event are associated with poor cardiovascular prognosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether an increase in the number of depressive symptoms after MI is associated with new cardiac events. In 442 depressed and 325 non-depressed MI patients the Composite International Diagnostic Interview interview to assess post-MI depression was extended to evaluate the presence of the ICD-10 depressive symptoms just before and after the MI. The effect of an increase in number of depressive symptoms during the year following MI on new cardiac events up to 2.5 years post-MI was assessed with Cox regression analyses. Each additional increase of one symptom was significantly associated with a 15% increased risk of new cardiac events, and this was stronger for non-depressed than for depressed patients. This association was independent of baseline cardiac disease severity. There was no interaction with the number of depressive symptoms pre-MI. Our findings suggest that an increase in depressive symptoms after MI irrespective of the state of depression pre-MI explains why post-MI depression is associated with poor cardiovascular prognosis. Also increases in depressive symptoms after MI resulting in subthreshold depression should be evaluated as a prognostic marker. Whether potential mechanisms such as cardiac disease severity or inflammation underlie the association remains to be clarified.Psychological Medicine 04/2012; 42(4):683-93. DOI:10.1017/S0033291711001784 · 5.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Individual symptoms of post-myocardial infarction (MI) depression may be differentially associated with cardiac prognosis, in which somatic/affective symptoms appear to be associated with a worse cardiovascular prognosis than cognitive/affective symptoms. These findings hold important implications for treatment but need to be replicated before conclusions regarding treatment can be drawn. We therefore examined the relationship between depressive symptom dimensions following MI and both disease severity and prospective cardiac prognosis. Patients (n=473) were assessed on demographic and clinical variables and completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) within the first week of hospital admission for acute MI. Depressive symptom dimensions were associated with baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and prospective cardiac death and/or recurrent MI. The average follow-up period was 2.8 years. Factor analysis revealed two symptom dimensions--somatic/affective and cognitive/affective--in the underlying structure of the BDI, identical to previous results. There were 49 events attributable to cardiac death (n=23) or recurrent MI (n=26). Somatic/affective (p=0.010) but not cognitive/affective (p=0.153) symptoms were associated with LVEF and cardiac death/recurrent MI. When controlling for the effects of previous MI and LVEF, somatic/affective symptoms remained significantly predictive of cardiac death/recurrent MI (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.69, p=0.038). Previous MI was also an independent predictor of cardiac death/recurrent MI. We confirmed that somatic/affective, rather than cognitive/affective, symptoms of depression are associated with MI severity and cardiovascular prognosis. Interventions to improve cardiovascular prognosis by treating depression should be targeted at somatic aspects of depression.Psychological Medicine 09/2009; 40(5):807-14. DOI:10.1017/S0033291709990997 · 5.43 Impact Factor